How Might Brexit Affect the Global Fashion Apparel Industry: Discussion Questions from FASH455

#1 To which extent should globalization be responsible for Brexit and why?

#2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why?

#3 Does Brexit imply that globalization is in retreat? Why or why not?

#4 Brexit has sparked immense controversy both in and outside of the UK. Given that Britain is one of Europe’s largest importers, how will Brexit affect garment factories and economies of lower-developed countries like Bangladesh and Haiti? Is there anything lower-developed countries can do to help them prepare for Brexit?

#5 Based on the readings, what could be the worst scenario of “Brexit”, particularly for the fashion apparel industry?

#6 Overall, from the case of Brexit, how do you understand that textile and apparel is a global sector?

[For FASH455: 1) Please mention the question number in your comments; 2) Please address at least TWO questions in your comments]

Author: Sheng Lu

Professor @ University of Delaware

87 thoughts on “How Might Brexit Affect the Global Fashion Apparel Industry: Discussion Questions from FASH455”

  1. Question #1) Given that it talks a lot about immigration, immigration is part of globalization therefore I think in someway that they are responsible since it all ties together
    Question #2) I believe the fashion industry is the loser because 90% of people voted against it.

    1. Jackie, I agree with your points regarding Brexit and feel they are very relevant to what is happening in the industry today.

    2. Jackie, I agree with both of your answers to the two questions. Immigration is definitely a piece of globalization and this is something that Brexit supporters are worried about, and one of the reasons they have voted for the exit. Also, I agree that the fashion industry is the loser because the uncertainty could severely hurt business.

  2. Question 1) Because there are so many unknowns regarding Brexit, you can not say that there is a direct correlation between globalization and Brexit.
    Question 2) The fashion industry does not want Brexit to be implanted because 90% of persons in the fashion industry voting against this law. They did not want this so therefore they are the loser.

    1. Rachel, I agree with question #2. That is a great point- 90% of fashion industry voting against this law definitely means something!

    2. I like the take you have on question number 2. It was very similar to my thought process on this question. I also think that the fashion industry is the loser in this situation.

    3. I think your answer to question #1 is interesting. There are so many unknowns that accompany Brexit, so it is hard to say how much impact globalization has on the cause of it. Also, I agree with your answer for question #2, the fashion industry is not in favor of Brexit, therefore they are the loser.

  3. The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because England is isolating themselves and not participating in fashion globalization anymore. They are missing out on opportunities and other countries will not have the opportunity to share fashion ideas as well.

    1. I agree with the statement that England is isolating themselves by not participating in globalization anymore due to missed opportunities. Without the resources of companies other than England, their resources will be scarce and they will face tariffs when importing and exporting goods.

  4. 1) I don’t think globalization should be fully responsible for Brexit because globalization is more responsible for bigger issues like immigration.
    2) I believe that the fashion industry is a loser in Brexit because more people voted against it.

    1. Your first question really helps to explain how globalization incorporates several things- immigration being one of them!

    1. I agree with both of your questions. The fashion industry is the loser in this situation, and globalization should focus on more important issues. I wrote something similar!

  5. #1 Globalization as a whole should be responsible for Brexit. One of the main driving factors was the disagreement on immigration policies, which can be considered a sector of globalization.
    #2 The fashion industry is a loser, mainly because they are stuck in limbo right now. They are unsure on how it will affect the industry. Tariffs may come into play, designers and brands may have to move production, and it’s hard to plan for future seasons when the industry is not sure what is going to happen.

    1. Whoa!! I couldn’t have said it better myself. Your opinion on the fashion industry being a loser makes me agree more with that argument.

    2. #1. This is a great point. In the reading, we saw that skilled workers from Eastern European countries no longer seek jobs in the UK’s fashion sector due to feeling unwanted. Globalization is about appreciating the resources that we give to and take from other countries, not about closing other countries off.

    3. #1 I somewhat agree because globalization is partially the result of Brexit since the reading mentions the push for the return of “made in Britain” since many of the products of the textile and apparel industries are imported. In addition, as you mentioned, there are other contributing factors as well, like immigration, which, in a way, is part of globalization. However, since 52% of voters for Brexit and it was a result of a decades-long debate, I think it is difficult to say Brexit had one cause, especially due to the rapid acceleration of globalization in recent years.

  6. Michael Moran
    2. I don’t believe the fashion industry as a whole is necessarily winning or losing as a result of Brexit. I feel as if the fashion industry within the United Kingdom will suffer as a result of Brexit because many U.K. fashion companies might decide to take their brand headquarters elsewhere just to make the relationship with the rest of Europe much easier.

    3. I do believe that Brexit implies that globalization is in retreat. Much like the United States political climate right now Brexit is implying that we don’t want to try and work with other countries towards a larger global goal and outlook.

  7. 2. I think the fashion industry is on the losing side of Brexit. Three quarters of the materials used in the UK are imported; manufacturers will face an array of tariffs with the implementation of Brexit.

    6. The Textile & Apparel Industry is definitely a global sector. Designs can come from any number of brands in developed countries, whose production teams source fabrics and trims from other countries, which are manufactured elsewhere.

    1. I agree, I also think the fashion industry is on the losing side of Brexit. It causes costs to increase which decreases profits within the fashion industry.

    2. In response to your answer for #2: I agree with your opinion that the fashion industry is on the losing side of Brexit. Without free trade agreements established under the EU, the UK will, in fact be subject to tariffs on their imports and exports. This would make costs increase and transportation of goods could potentially take longer.

      In response to your answer for #6: In addition to designs, fabrics, and trims, the reading indicated that many “British” designers also com from other European countries outside of the UK. The T&A industry is very much a global sector as ideas and resources can be obtained and produced from many countries.

  8. Question #2: Fashion is definitely the loser of Brexit because there is the possibility of high tariffs which in turn can raise prices. This may dissuade consumers from continuing business. Furthermore it can affect sourcing.

    Question #5: A hard brexit could be the worst case scenario because in would cause extreme tariffs.

  9. 1. I don’t think that globalization should be responsible for Brexit because it’s more responsible for bigger/more important issues. Some issues like this would be immigration as an example. 2. I think it’s a loser because existing trade deals would disappear and designers would have to pay to trade with the European Union.

    1. Since massive immigration into the UK is a result of globalization in Europe, it is partially at fault (in the opinions of those who voted for Brexit), but in the opinions of other UK citizens, immigration is a good thing. Additionally, millions of Europeans who work in the British fashion industry are fearing for their jobs, status, and well-being.

  10. 1. Globalization is somewhat responsible for Brexit. I say this because globalization is such a big picture. There are many factors that play into it and many other countries that involve trading not just these two nations. However it is because of globalization that Brexit is happening and it may affect future trade laws.
    2. The fashion industry is a loser because people in the fashion industry because people didn’t want Brexit to be implemented. It could affect trade for other countries and especially for the UK

  11. #2) The fashion industry is a loser as a result of the Brexit vote, because of the massive uncertainty imposed. Fashion is always moving at a fast pace and designers know what’s coming up many seasons ahead, but Brexit has the potential to severely impact sourcing and manufacturing, tariffs, barriers to entry, taxes at the border, increased prices in products (resulting in angry customers and less consumption), and strained relationships between fashion workers in the UK and the rest of the European Union. British fashion industry leaders voted against Brexit and are worried about the worst-case scenarios that could happen.

    #4) Brexit is threatening the manufacturing industries in top export countries like Bangladesh and Haiti – by no longer exporting to one of the top importers in Europe, these countries’ economies will suffer even more than they already are. Bangladesh and Haiti need to try to strengthen their relations with other major importing nations, like the United States, in order to keep up with their manufacturing and not have a massive loss of jobs and money.

    1. I think both of your responses were very accurate. I do not think that Brexit will have a huge impact on countries like Bangladesh and Haiti. I think they will continue to source from these countries because they know they are getting what they want from them and it is hard to switch and find new manufacturers, materials, etc.

  12. 2. I think the fashion industry as a whole is a loser in the Brexit issue because they have to work harder to keep the industry running. Imports and exports from other European countries will become much harder due to their leaving the EU. Although the big brands from Britain like Burberry will likely not have any issues, the smaller brands may face difficulties sourcing products.
    3. I don’t think Brexit means that globalization is in retreat. The major reasons for Brexit has to do with immigration and economics, not that Britain doesn’t want to be interconnected. As a country they still will interact with the world with trade and other industries, they just wanted it to be more difficult for people to enter their country which seems to be a trend in society today. Globalization of people is the only form of globalization that is in retreat today.

  13. I believe that the fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because it will create many more problems for stages in the product development process that were once seamless. As the article points out these problems include but are not limited to the ream of paperwork that will be required and higher prices due to tariffs.

  14. 2. The fashion industry is definitely a loser of Brexit mainly for the reason of uncertainty. The fashion industry has to plan seasons in advance due to design, sourcing and production processes. It is difficult for the industry to plan ahead when they do not know how much the tariffs will be and what the trade restrictions will be. Also, 90% of fashion related people voted against it.
    6. In terms of Brexit, textile and apparel is a global sector because a majority of garments that are sold in a certain country, contain materials and labor that occurred in many other countries. The world has to work together and have mutual trade agreements in order for this to be successful. Europe is only thinking of themselves when it comes to Brexit, and not how this could affect the fashion industry on a global scale.

    1. I completely agree that the fashion industry is the loser in this situation because of the timeline that the fashion calendar works on and how Brexit is still so uncertain. Great point!

  15. Question #2) I think the fashion Industry is a loser of Bretix. About 90% of head designers did not want it to take place. They are worried about the elimination of trade deals.
    Question #5) One of the worst things that can happen to the fashion industry is that countries that typically trade with the UK will backlash and stop trading with them.

  16. #1: Globalization should not be responsible for Brexit. Globalization should be responsible for more important things for example; immigration.
    #2: The fashion industry is the loser because clothing prices will rise due to tariffs.

  17. 2) The fashion industry is ultimately the loser of Brexit. It is creating an environment that isn’t as inclusive and active as before. Brexit will close off a part of the industry that was open and full of free trading before. This new situations proposes a concern with trading and sourcing within the United Kingdom.
    5) One of the worst case scenarios that could unfold for the fashion industry because of this is that the UK is not involved in the industry anymore. It could exclude them altogether and their economy would crumble.

    1. I agree! Fashion is responsible for so much of the UK’s economy and London is currently in limbo as one of the fashion capitals of the world – the UK could definitely lose its spot as one of the world’s strongest and largest economies because of Brexit and its implications for the fashion industry.

  18. #2: According to the readings, I believe that the fashion industry is a loser in Brexit, due to the fact that it is so unknown as to what is going to happen, and since many people voted against it. This would also cause an extreme increase in tariffs. Other factors as to why the fashion industry is a loser of Brexit leads into #5: The worst case scenario of “Brexit”, particularly for the fashion apparel industry would be an extreme decrease or elimination of international trade. This would cause the UK to no longer be involved in this industry, which would be a huge downfall for the UK overall.

    1. I agree that the industry will unfortunately be the loser in Brexit because of the multiple factors that work against them, and how it affects it along all parts of the supply chain. The UK will definitely be seen differently by the rest of the world as well due to the trading it is known to do.

  19. The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because it hurts the industry because fashion in today’s day and age cannot be sourced from one country alone. They will be isolated and the prices of other goods will be raised.

    1. I agree that it is the loser of Bretix because clothing tariffs would increase to 11 percent to 1 billion euros more each year.

  20. #2. The fashion industry is a loser of Brexit. As mentioned in the article, the poorest countries will be hit the hardest by this new deal. This will be a problem for the industry because it relies on these countries for manufacturing and production. Brexit will also force designers to raise the prices of their apparel, a possible issue for their consumers and consumer market. What impact do you think this will have on the United States? Is the fashion industry at risk?

    1. #6 The fashion industry is a global sector because on several countries for the success and sale of apparel. For example, something might be designed in the UK, produced in Bangladesh and sold in the United States.

  21. Question #2: I think the fashion industry is the loser of Brexit. When you think of big fashion capitals, England doesn’t necessarily come to mind; they are not known for their manufacturing, and also don’t have an abundant amount of it’s own fashion brands. Many other countries in Europe are well known for their influence on fashion though. With Brexit in place it will be harder for England to have access to Europe’s fashion without having to pay the hefty price.

    Question #6: Brexit really shows how much each country affects each other. England’s influence on the fashion industry may not seem that big, but with Brexit being put in place we can really see how much it will affect other countries. The tariffs put in place might mean decrease in importations, meaning lower production in other countries due to a decrease in demand from England.

  22. 2. The fashion industry is the loser since now that the UK is no longer a part of the EU, they will have different or zero trade agreements with countries that supply them items within the production process.
    6. It is easy to see that textile and apparel is a global sector because of the impacts on the UK after Brexit. They are losing their agreements with other countries due to not being in the EU anymore.

  23. #1 I do not feel it is fair to say globalization is fully responsible for Brexit because they focus more on bigger issues overall.
    #2 The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because of how many people were so against it.

  24. 1. EU membership allows for immigrants from other EU member countries to travel to Britain and work without a work visa. People who support Brexit believe that EU membership and immigrants’ easy access to the UK is hurting their scarce public resources and taking jobs from UK residents. Immigrants moving into another country for work is absolutely an aspect of globalization.
    2. The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because Brexit poses an uncertainty to the industry in terms of tariffs and other costs that may be endured. The fashion industry moves so quickly and works far into the future, so the uncertainty behind the costs they will have to pay is hurtful to the planning of the industry.
    5. The worst scenario of Brexit for the fashion industry would be that companies do not plan properly for the tariffs and changes that are made by Brexit. If a company does not prepare appropriately for higher costs and such, this could hurt business and the overall industry.

  25. #2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why? I believe that the fashion industry is the loser of Brexit for many reasons. For example, 90% of the British fashion industry did not agree with Brexit. Additionally, British based fashion retailers and manufacturers expressed their interest in relocating their business to new countries due to the Brexit deal because it is more hurtful than helpful. In all, Brexit has already began negatively affecting the fashion industry in Britain and it will continue to hurt the fashion industry.

    #6 Overall, from the case of Brexit, how do you understand that textile and apparel is a global sector? Overall, Brexit connects to our class topics that fashion is a global sector. As mentioned in the article, 75% of materials used in the UK are imported and Brexit will cause many logistical difficulties such as shipment delays, importers will have to pay up front, and there will be foreign delays. Also, many retailers were interested in leaving the country, which would impact the economics in the UK because the fashion industry makes up $30 billion of the economic revenue. This will also impact the poorer countries that export to the UK. Due to Brexit, there are many global impacts on the fashion industry.

  26. Question 2) In my opinion, the fashion industry is the loser of Brexit. 90% of people in the fashion industry against it.
    Question 6) The textile and apparel is a global sector based on the impact of export tax of other countries.

    1. I agree with your points! If 90% of people in the fashion industry are against Brexit, its obvious that it will have a negative impact on the industry.

  27. 2. The fashion industry is definitely the loser in regards to Brexit. Even simple tasks such as importing cloth and other components from different countries will cause much more stress and additional steps added in order to complete them. There is also worry that London may lose its recognition as one of the fashion capitals of the world. 5. One bad scenario of Brexit could be that countries that have previously traded with the UK will no longer interact with them.

  28. 1. Globalization should not be responsible for Brexit because its responsible for more important things such as immigration.
    2. The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because designers, retailers and manufacturers will have to pay in order to trade with the European Union. In addition, prices will rise for clothes after Brexit.

    1. I agree with your second point and i made a similar point in my response. The cost of Brexit leaving is not only going to hurt trade but also the prices of the items that are being traded which, in turn, could potentially ruin the company altogether.

  29. #2: The fashion industry is the loser in the Brexit situation. 90% of the fashion industry that voted were not in favor of the exit as it would complicate their process and result’s of their business in many ways. Richard Lim of Retail Economics explained that, tariffs will be significantly higher, import and export policies will not be ironed out at first and can delay manufacturing and successfully selling goods, and prices of good will go up, which could mean a decrease in active customers. Overall it will be huge disruption to the industry.

    #5: Based on the readings, the worst case of Brexit for the fashion industry is that brands and companies will fall behind in their calendars and as a result, not have a good selling season, and potentially may not be able to build up their business again and may cause closures. As Stylist Tamara Cincik stated, brands will just begin to leave and take their business elsewhere to avoid defeat. As the reading said, the industry is not well prepared and this is not the path fashion wants to take.

  30. #1 I do not think globalization should be responsible for Bretix. I think Bretix impacts globalization because it causes and increases in quantities for transportation, distribution, and manufacturing. This impacts trade with countries it usually works with.
    #2 The fashion industry is not a winner of Brexit because it makes it more expensive overall. Clothing tariffs would increase to “11 percent to 1 billion euros more each year. ” This makes the costs of every garment to go up.

  31. #2 – The fashion industry is a loser of Brexit because what once was an easy task to trade between Britain and the European Union will now be more difficult and expensive due to higher tariffs on imports. These tariffs will cause a ripple effect of increased prices of products for consumers as well. While Britain is not as influential in the fashion world as Europe, there are still many designers that are based in England that will be impacted by this division.
    #3 – While Britain leaving the European Union might not seem to have a large impact on the globalization of the entire world, when you look at the big picture, Britain is not the only one to have cut ties with other countries. The United States has gotten rid of multiple trade agreements with other countries and is currently looking to increase tariffs on goods from China. These two instances could show that the world might be retreating slightly from globalization seeing as both the U.S. and Britain are extremely globalized.

  32. #2 The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit. Fist of all, the clothing and footwear tariffs of about 11%, or just over 1 billion pound more each year. Secondly, the designers, retailers and manufactures won’t know what kind of string will be attached with the free trade agreement. Lastly, the customs union may get diminished.

  33. #1) The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit. Not only will Brexit make it more expensive and take longer to source from other countries and reach foreign consumers, but ideas of British fashion companies can be taken advantage of. Ideas to not have borders, and foreign companies that have easier access to European consumers outside of Britain could take inspiration from British products.

    #6) When considering Brexit, it is easy to see that textile and apparel is a global sector. Not only do companies source from other countries, but, with globalization, many consumers are also foreign. Trade regulations between countries is a prime example of globalization, and regarding Britain’s fashion industry, harsher trade laws will play a large role in how they source and reach their consumers.

  34. #2- I feel that the fashion industry is a loser in Brexit. In the reading, Professor Lu mentioned that there is no way to grow cotton in the UK, therefore they have always relied on their nearby European countries for resources they cannot produce themselves, such as cotton. Now, these resources are going to be more difficult to obtain and as a result end up increasing the price of apparel for consumers.

    #6- After reading about Brexit, I am realizing how much countries rely on other countries for certain resources and how much of a detriment it can be when trade agreements are terminated, causing the cost of goods to greatly increase.

  35. 2. The fashion industry is a loser of Brexit. As the global fashion capital, the UK is going to be drastically affected by Brexit. Now there will be less gods moving across the borders and since the resources required to make garments in the UK are mostly imported, there are going to be less garments made in the UK.
    5. The worst case scenario is that fashion companies in UK will either move to other countries that are still in the EU or they will have to pay high tariffs that could really hurt their profits. Either way, the companies could lose money and/or the business could shutdown.

  36. #2- I personally think that the fashion industry is a loser of Brexit. I think this because so much of the fashion industry in the UK relies on international trade. It is very likely that once Brexit is put into place that there will be a large increase in tariffs. Many fashion companies are uncertain and fearful about the future of their brands and also how Brexit will impact them.

    #5- I think that the worst scenario of Brexit on the fashion industry would be the rise in prices. Many UK brands could suffer financially from this change due to the rise in tariffs. I also think some UK brands might decrease in quality because of the financial changes companies will have to make.

  37. #2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why?
    In my opinion, the fashion industry is the loser in the Brexit situation, it makes goods very expensive. Because high import tariff. Before it was the easy thing to trade between UK and Europe, but after Brexit, the trade become difficult. Thus, import tariff increase the consumer product prices.
    #5 Based on the readings, what could be the worst scenario of “Brexit”, particularly for the fashion apparel industry?
    The worst scenario of Brexit is the rise in prices. This situation makes some retailers and brands have bad sale. Consumers have to spend more money to purchase garment.

  38. I’m not a student, but I do follow this blog.

    #1 To which extent should globalization be responsible for Brexit and why?
    – I don’t think it’s right to say that globalization is responsible for Brexit. Brexit is a reaction to pressing external factors. Brexit, Trump, right wing political movements in Europe, these shows us that countries want to have more direct regulation over their own borders and fiscal policies, but to say it is a reaction to globalization is not considering larger long term threats. In the not too distant future climate change will force mass relocations globally and most countries are not equipped to deal with the impacts of severe population shifts in any capacity. Protectionist borders and trade policies happening now can be considered a safeguard against immigration levels that will cripple countries in the future. In the case of Britain, it is a welfare state (NHS and government financial support) and this welfare is available to citizens and immigrants – but there is a limit, and welfare is already diluted to the point of being unacceptable to the public. A direct reduction in immigration also acts to safeguard welfare and public services by reducing demand and cost.

    #2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why?
    – Of course, countries which export heavily to UK will be hurt. The major risk is that increased import duties resulting from a lack of existing/agreed FTAs will result in cost pressures on brands, which would likely be pushed onto the garment & fabric manufacturers (whose margins are already squeezed). There would be many losers in this case, but on the other hand… it could force consolidation amongst manufacturers – big players can weather the storm but SME’s will be closed or acquired. Consolidation means more bargaining power for textile producers – but it remains to be seen what will happen as Brexit is one factor of many.

    #3 Does Brexit imply that globalization is in retreat? Why or why not?
    – As in Q1, Brexit is a reaction to the concept of the Eurozone. It does not imply a trend that global supply chains will retreat or contract . Brands are too reliant on supply chains to allow this to happen. If globalization is to retreat it means that businesses will no longer serve or supply certain parts of the world, instead focusing on their domestic markets. This simply will not happen, at least not by choice.

    #4 Brexit has sparked immense controversy both in and outside of the UK. Given that Britain is one of Europe’s largest importers, how will Brexit affect garment factories and economies of lower-developed countries like Bangladesh and Haiti? Is there anything lower-developed countries can do to help them prepare for Brexit?
    – Unless there is a demand from elsewhere to fill the void then expect an overall downturn in the industry there. Low demand = smaller production quantities = smaller raw material orders = raw material price goes up (because economies of scale). These countries can barely go any lower on production price without making significant compromises to quality, or worker welfare. The manufacturers who can bury the loss will survive and the smaller players will die.

  39. FASH455 #1 To which extent should globalization be responsible for Brexit and why?
    Globalization from a trade perspective was not a reason for Brexit. The reasons were/are a) frustration against the EU and return to independance and b) Immigration – but not in general: the UK is used to immigration for a century or more from its colonies (I recently found “Chicken Marsala” as a “traditional british meal” besides fish & Chips on a menu in Heathrow). Brexiteers are against Immigration from eastern european EU members like Poland, Romania and Bulgaria, ignoring that they need this people in a huge number of skilled and unskilled jobs.

    #2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why?
    I cannot find a single winner in the industry. Additional borders and duties will increase costs and slow down the supply chain. Worst case is a UK-Company with a DC for the whole EU there.

    #3 Does Brexit imply that globalization is in retreat? Why or why not?
    The retreat of globalization has other reasons than Brexit.

    #4 Brexit has sparked immense controversy both in and outside of the UK. Given that Britain is one of Europe’s largest importers, how will Brexit affect garment factories and economies of lower-developed countries like Bangladesh and Haiti? Is there anything lower-developed countries can do to help them prepare for Brexit?
    I do not see a huge impact. Maybe they have to split shipments between EU and UK. There is just one open question whether the UK will adopt the existing GSP-Regime of the EU.

    #5 Based on the readings, what could be the worst scenario of “Brexit”, particularly for the fashion apparel industry? No question – the “no-deal-Brexit” on MArch, 29st.. Neither fashion industry, nor Transportation Services nor authorities/governments are sufficiently prepared and need more time.

  40. 2. The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit because many Eastern European skilled workers have begun to leave Britain post referendum. This creates uncertainty concerning the quality and production time of textile and apparel being produced in the British fashion industry. In addition, 90% of the British fashion industry voted against Brexit.

    6. From the case of Brexit, it is apparent that textile and apparel is a global sector due to the fact that that many “British” designers are actually originally from other European countries, as well as the idea that Britain relies on countries such as Bangladesh, Italy, China, and India for sourcing, transporting, and trade. Many countries participate trade with Britain in order to produce and distribute apparel, therefore textile and apparel is a global sector.

    1. I agree with your response in #6. Workers in the textile and apparel industries that are from other countries in the European Union but live in Britain may feel unwelcome as a result of Brexit. This could impact the GDP of the country in addition to its reputation within the global textile and apparel industries.

  41. #1 To which extent should globalization be responsible for Brexit and why?
    Globalization should not be responsible for Brexit. Brexit will impact globalization, instead of the opposite. With specific laws and enforcements, it will be harder for countries to trade with Britain and it will limit the country to performing certain tasks.

    #2 Is the fashion industry the winner or loser of Brexit and why?
    The fashion industry is the loser of Brexit. 90% of the fashion industry in Britain voted against Brexit and it will only hurt the industry in the long run. The cost of production, trading and sourcing will only increase which will make it harder for Britain to produce garments quickly and at the price that appeals to customers in the country. Overall, there will be a large increase in tariffs, which will harm many fashion companies. They are questionable about the future of the industry and how Brexit will impact them.

    1. I agree with your response to question 2 – Brexit is going to hurt the fashion industry and will result in more negatives than positives. Designers and brands are going to suffer from this.

  42. #2 I think right now, it seems as though Britain is the loser since they import many of their textile and apparel products, which cause costs to increase. Since 90% of the industry voted against Brexit, the industry feels largely unprepared for the exit. However, universities, like the London College of Fashion, claim EU applicants and attendance has not dropped since the vote. Since university students are the future of the industry, it presents students with a new challenge as they enter the industry, but it also means there are new ideas and opportunities since the students are in school as Brexit occurs.

    #6 The textile and apparel industry relies on different countries to produce products that may unavailable or very expensive in their own country in order to minimize their costs and the prices consumers pay. By placing tariffs on a country, it affects the industries of all the countries involved in that production process because it results in increased prices and costs, and potentially, a reduction of desired units. In addition, many workers in the textile and apparel industry come from different backgrounds. For example, designers may come from other European countries or skilled workers may come from Eastern Europe, as mentioned in the article “What could Brexit Mean for the Global Apparel and Fashion Industry.”

  43. 2. Is the fashion industry a winner or loser of Brexit and why?
    The fashion industry is a loser of Brexit, at its current status. Brexit is currently in somewhat of a standstill state, because Parliament voted against the Prime Minister’s Brexit deal a month ago. Even though there are still two months before the official exit from the EU, certain parts of the supply chain within the industry is succumbing to the affects of Brexit. Also, fashion brands are already having to put in more effort and work to prepare for what may come. Companies are having to stock up on products now, to prepare for delivery delays or higher tariffs that may occur post Brexit. Whether or not these effects will happen because of Brexit, the industry is already having to work overtime in order to fight Brexit, making the industry the loser.

    6. Overall, from the case of Brexit, how do you understand that textile and apparel is a global sector?
    One of the main concerns Brexit is causing is how textiles and apparel will be imported to the UK, because the UK is an important location for fashion business. What makes textile and apparel a global sector regarding the UK is that materials must be imported to the country, due to the land’s lack of natural resources that make it impossible to create textiles domestically. For example, cotton is not able to be grown in the UK, therefore is needs to be imported and duty-free trade deals makes this extremely easy for LCDs who are capable of producing cotton or other textiles. Brexit may affect those LCDs around the globe who important textiles and apparel into the UK duty-free, because higher import costs might not be attainable for those countries.

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