FASH455 case study: Should the U.S. rejoin the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)?


  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was a proposed free trade agreement between the United States and eleven other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia, Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Mexico, Canada, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, Chile, and New Zealand.
  • Once TPP is implemented, tariffs for textiles and apparel traded between TPP members would be reduced to zero from their current rate (around 5%-10% for textiles and 10-30% for apparel). The tariff rate for trade between TPP members and non-TPP members (such as China) will remain unchanged. However, TPP would NOT provide additional import duty saving benefits for textile and apparel products traded between Mexico, Canada, and the United States because tariffs are already reduced to zero under the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Trade Agreement (USMCA or commonly called NAFTA 2.0).
  • TPP adopts the strict “yarn-forward” rules of origin for apparel items. This means that fibers may be produced anywhere, but each component starting with the yarn used to make the apparel garments must be formed within the TPP area so that the finished apparel can be qualified for the preferential duty-treatment provided by TPP.
  • Among the TPP members, Vietnam is already the second-largest apparel exporter to the United States. Despite the high tariff rate, the value of US apparel imports from Vietnam increased by 131% between 2010 and 2019, much higher than 17% of the world average. Vietnam’s shares in the US apparel import market also quickly increased from only 4.0% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2019 (and 20.2% from Jan to August 2020).
  • As a developing country, Vietnam relies on imported yarns and fabrics heavily for its apparel production. Over 97% of Vietnam’s textile imports come from Asian countries, including China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. Less than 1% of Vietnam’s textile imports came from the United States in 2019. 
  • Meanwhile, thanks to foreign investments (mostly from Asia), Vietnam quickly builds its local textile manufacturing capacity. Notably, data from the World Trade Organization (WTO) shows that for the first time in history, Vietnam ranked the world’s seventh-largest textile exporter in 2019, climbing 8.3% from a year earlier to reach $8.8billion. If it can maintain this momentum, Vietnam will likely surpass South Korea and become the world’s sixth-largest textile exporter in just 1-2 years (around 2022-2023).  
  • President Trump announced to withdraw the United States from TPP in January 2017. However, the rest of the 11 members moved on and reached the agreement without the United States. The so-called Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP or TPP without the US) was signed in March 2018 and officially took effect in December 2018. Much of the original TPP provisions remain intact in CPTPP.
  • China, one of the world’s largest apparel exporters and textile exporters, is actively exploring the possibility of joining CPTPP. Meanwhile, China plays an increasingly important role as a textile supplier for apparel-exporting countries in Asia over the past decade. In 2019, China supplied 57% of Vietnam’s textile imports, up from 26% in 2010.
  • China is also a member of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), a free trade agreement between ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)* and five other large economies in the Asia-Pacific region (China, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, and Australia).[Note: ASEAN members include Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam]. Studies suggest that RCEP will likely further strengthen China’s role as the primary textile suppliers for other RCEP members, including Vietnam.
  • Since CPTPP goes into effect, there have been growing calls for the new Biden administration to consider rejoining TPP (CPTPP). However, debates remain regarding the specific economic benefits and costs of doing so.  

Discussion question: from the perspective of the U.S. textile industry and U.S. fashion brands and retailers, why or why not the United States should rejoin TPP?

Author: Sheng Lu

Professor @ University of Delaware

35 thoughts on “FASH455 case study: Should the U.S. rejoin the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)?”

  1. I believe the United States should rejoin the TPP. The biggest influencing factor in my opinion is the idea that 1/3 of the United States’ T&A imports come from the TPP region. By joining the TPP, tariff rates would be reduced to zero, which would benefit many U.S. companies. However, the idea of the TPP enforcing the yarn-forward rule is more complicated. This makes it difficult for U.S. apparel manufacturers to have more freedom, but it benefits the textile manufacturers. I believe that the yarn-forward rule could be renegotiated, being that there were exceptions to NAFTA and the yarn forward rule as well.

    1. two follow up questions: 1) how to convince the US textile industry to support joining the TPP given their huge concerns about Vietnam? 2) Vietnam is quickly advancing its local textile manufacturing capability. Can the yarn-forward rules of origin still benefit the US textile industry in the context of TPP?

    2. I agree Laurette! I think that rejoining the TPP can only promote America’s willingness to participate in mutually beneficial globalization and keep US retailers in good standing with the largest Apparel export region in our world. Reducing tariff rates would also be beneficial and showcase the positive outcomes of this agreement to those Americans that may be skeptical about continuing to import goods from Asia, whether that be because of COVID-19 restrictions or just wanting to bring manufacturing back to America. I also like your point about the yarn-forward rules and how they have potential to be tweaked to increase appeal to US retailers in the way it has for textile manufacturers. Other countries use fabric-forward rules, maybe a combination of the two could provide a happy medium!

  2. Looking at the perspective of the U.S. textile industry, fashion brands, and retailers, I do think that the U.S. should rejoin the TPP because of the amount of mutual benefits for everyone involved. With how many imports the U.S. brings in from the TPP region, it would benefit many American companies to have a trade agreement with those countries. Even though the yarn-forward rule of origin is rather restricting, it’s still beneficial to U.S. textile companies. Furthermore, if the U.S. were to rejoin the TPP it could boost their textile exports since Vietnam relies so heavily on Asian textile imports. While the yarn-forward rule is seen as a complicated obstacle for the U.S. apparel industry, I think it would still benefit greatly from the reduced import tariffs. In addition, piggybacking off what the previous comment said, there is always the possibility of the yarn-forward rule being re-negotiated if it was deemed too complicated for U.S. apparel industries to abide by. Overall, I think that re-joining the TPP would be very beneficial to both the U.S. and the countries within the TPP region.

  3. From the perspective of the US textile industry, the US should not rejoin the TPP. If the TPP had adopted yarn-forward rules of origin, the US textile industry would have seen short-term benefits by being the only country in the TPP capable of producing and exporting large amounts of textiles. However, this would have only been a short-term benefit because there has been an influx of international investments into Vietnam to build textile factories there within the next decade. If Vietnam is able to produce their own textiles as a member of the TPP, then the US would lose their advantage as being the only major textile manufacturer. Additionally, joining the TPP would have also meant disrupting the Western Hemisphere supply chain, where the US textile industry exports yarns and fabrics to Mexico & Central American countries to have them cut and sewn into apparel and then imported back to the US. Under NAFTA and CAFTA-DR, the US textile industry has a guaranteed export market; however, rejoining the TPP would mean that the US would rely more heavily on TPP members for apparel sourcing, leading to less apparel being imported from Mexico and Central American countries, and therefore significantly less textiles exported by the US to these regions.

    From the perspective of the US apparel industry, the US should rejoin the TPP. Rejoining the TPP would mean that fashion brands & retailers could enjoy the benefits of tariff-free trade with a number of countries, such as Vietnam, that the US relies on heavily for apparel imports. This would significantly reduce sourcing costs, allowing fashion brands & retailers the opportunity for greater profits.

    In my own opinion, it is extremely near-sighted that Trump withdrew from the TPP, and the US should rejoin as soon as possible (which it appears will happen with the incoming Biden administration). Being a member of the TPP is amazing for fashion brands and retailers, and it would have at least provided short-term security for the US textile industry. Importantly, it also would have signaled to other countries that the US is open and friendly towards trading with them. Instead, the US is left appearing hostile towards other countries and excessively arrogant & isolationist, as the rest of the world works together towards trade and development. Joining the TPP was the US T&A industry’s chance to remain relevant in non-Chinese Asian markets, which will now be an even bigger hurdle due to RCEP. China’s political strategies to strengthen its ties within Asia and lessen its dependence on the West are paying off, and it is becoming increasingly clear that the US market is becoming less and less of an integral component for the success of Asian economies. Based on China’s investments in their allies and their willingness to cooperate with their neighbors, they have now positioned themselves as the favorable trading partners, and the US has a lot of work to do to ameliorate its relationships with these countries. Now that the US has backed itself into this corner, I do not think it is too far-fetched to postulate that the country will be unable to remain competitive in Asian markets long into the future. If this happens, the US may be forced to rely on Western Hemisphere supply chains for the majority of their goods, which would not be ideal under current conditions.

    1. this is superb, Eli!! Two quick follow-up comments: 1) I agree that the reaching of RCEP earlier this month will result in new push/pressures for the new Biden administration to consider doing something. My analysis shows that RCEP is likely to strengthen further the regional economic integration in Asia led-by China. This means, it will be even more difficult for US companies to find a role to play in the Asia-based supply chain (not just for textiles and apparel). 2) By the end of the day, whether to rejoin TPP will be a political calculation (sadly, trade policy is more treated as a foreign policy than an economic policy in the past decade). If you are interested in, this report written by Wendy Cutler, former deputy US trade representative might offer some new insights about the topic: https://asiasociety.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/A%20TPP%20Roadmap%20for%20the%20Next%20U.S.%20Administration.pdf

      1. I am just seeing your comment, Professor Lu. Thank you! It seems that the US is in a tough position…I will read the report by Wendy Cutler, I appreciate your sharing of relevant resources.

  4. I agree with the comments that rejoining the TPP can cause many benefits for the U.S. apparel industry and may cause headaches for the U.S. Textile Industry. When reviewing this content, I kept thinking about how the future of the fashion industry may be more clustered. As consumer demands and trends are changing quickly, apparel brands and retailers may be moving toward a system of keeping suppliers close to shorten lead times and speed to market for these trends. By utilizing the TPP and sourcing from overseas, this places more stress on suppliers as the U.S. apparel industry is demanding quicker production–and not all suppliers have the means to keep up without sacrificing health and safety standards. It would be ideal to keep production close to brands and retailers and build up the NAFTA and CAFTA-DR regions as a strong fashion industry supply chain, however I agree with Eli that this would be seen as selfish and hostile to other countries. Imposing the yarn-forward rule makes this decision harder, as we see apparel brands and retailers trying to find and use loopholes/exceptions to get around that restriction. There is no guarantee that this will stop when rejoining the TPP.

    Despite my comments, I do believe that the U.S. should rejoin the TPP and build relationships with more countries as, after all, the fashion industry is globally connected. The TPP provides many benefits for brands and retailers who frequently source from these countries to receive duty-free benefits, and also creates opportunities for growth, such as exporting U.S. textiles to Vietnam. Although the TPP does have its downfalls, I agree with Claire and Laurett that these systems are not set in stone and that they can be adjusted and renegotiated in due time.

  5. There are benefits to rejoining the TPP like the zero-percentage tariff, which would be great to have because if textiles did not they would be paying around 5-10% and apparel would be 10-30%. Also, with joining the TPP they have a huge market with a lot of countries which creates good opportunity. Another benefit is that Vietnam is a huge exporter of apparel for the U.S. and the no tariff rule would be a great opportunity in this case. Vietnam though is a problem for the textile industry though, which is definitely a downside to rejoining the TPP. From the perspective of textiles rejoining the TPP does not sound like a good idea. The problem is that the U.S. would benefit from getting apparel from Vietnam but, then they cannot rely on Mexico to import textiles, because the U.S. and then have a cycle where you give and you get. U.S. textiles are also struggling to get yarn forward rules implemented back into the TPP, because this would benefit them and protect them a lot. Also in the long run, the U.S. textile industry would have competition with Vietnam’s textile industry if the U.S. were to rejoin the TPP. So in conclusion, rejoining the TPP would be bad for the U.S. textile industry but would actually benefit the apparel industry. I am not really sure if they should join back yet until things are put in place to help protect the textile industry.

  6. I do think that the United States should rejoin the TPP as it seems that the pros outweigh the cons. By rejoining, tariff rates would drop from 10-30% to zero which would be very beneficial for many US fashion brands and retailers as these brands already import a lot from the TPP region. I think that building relationships with these countries would be very beneficial and would allow the US to be seen in more of a positive way. While there are concerns with yarn forward rules of origin for the US textile industry, these rules have the potential to change eventually. Vietnam also is a country who currently does not make their own textiles, rather they import them from other Asian countries. This would probably be easier said than done, but there may be a possibility here for US textile manufacturers to export their textiles to Vietnam if we rejoin. While I believe there should be more done in order to protect US textile manufacturers if we do rejoin, I still believe that overall rejoining would have a very big positive impact for the US fashion industry.

  7. After reading the discussion I believe the US should join the TPP. By re-joining the US would be able to create strong relationships with other nations. Because a very large portion of the Us imports are from TPP regions the US would be able to reduce spending costs on tariffs to 0, positively impacting US brands and markets. There are many opinions on the yarn-forward rule, because of this, I think the US should rejoin eventually, waiting out new rules and regulations.
    A lot can change in the coming year, with President-Elect Biden, many rules will be changed and who knows if they will stick to Trump’s original plans (they probably will not). We cannot assume new policies but I believe a lot of positive changes will be made in the forthcoming year with the T&A industry.

  8. I agree with several students responses to this topic, and after reading the information I do believe that the US should re-join the TPP, as I have come to conclusion that the pros outweigh the cons. The textile and apparel industry is ever changing and with a new President elected, there are many laws, rules, regulations, policies, etc., that have the chance to change. It is more important now then ever to create and maintain global relationships within the fashion and textile sectors, and this will bring along many benefits for the United States. For many of the US fashion brands, re-joining the TPP will decrease any and all tariffs to zero. I think there are a lot of concerns over the yarn-forward rules currently, as I believe they should be adjusted as well; however, there is room for change with a new President and new relationships that will be formed, as I mentioned above.

  9. From the perspective of the U.S. textile industry and U.S. fashion brands/retailers, I feel that the United States should rejoin the Trans-Pacific Partnership. The top reason I came to this conclusion would be the benefit the US would receive by creating and maintaining these strong relationships with other nations. Re-entering the TPP we would observe a reduction in tariffs on global trade. This would be increasingly beneficial for the US as opportunities would arise in the export market. Especially with COVID, this would be an opportunity to boost the economy. With this being said, with the new President Elect, deals would have to be renegotiated. Despite this, it would be in the best interest of the US to create these said relationships by rejoining the TPP.

  10. I think by the United States re-joining the TPP, there will then be more benefits for the US fashion brands in the market than not. It can improve relationships with nations where the trade is made. Also, tariff rates will also drop as a result of this action.

  11. To me, the answer as to whether the US should rejoin the TPP is a no brainer. Rejoining it would provide incredible benefits to the textile and apparel industry, specifically due to Vietnam. It seems illogical that the US continues to partake in trade with Vietnam despite the high tariff rates and the lack of reciprocal trade of textile imports. The TPP would solve this issue entirely, as the tariff would disappear and US exports would seem more desirable to Vietnam because of it. While it would be greatly beneficial if the agreement included China, it is almost better this way. Due to the rising capital capabilities of Chinese textile industry, Asian countries are now turning to China for its imports. Such a dynamic shift in what is regionally called the “flying geese model”, deems outsiders with similar production capacities (i.e the US) no longer relevant. Both this, as well as the highly influential US-China Trade War, has made each country slowly pull away from each other. And, as the relationship continues to change throughout COVID-19, it would beneficial to retailers to extend their free trade options to a country that has proved to be #2 in their books–Vietnam.

    1. Agree with several great points you made. Meanwhile, as we mentioned in this week’s lectures, trade policymaking involves many stakeholders and policymakers have to strike a balance. In particular, whether to rejoin TPP will also involve non-economic considerations (e.g., foreign policy and geopolitics), which will be beyond the control of the US textile and apparel industry. Nevertheless, I think TPP (CPTPP) will remain a fairly hot topic in the next few years during the Biden administration.

  12. From the perspective of the US textile industry, I do not believe that the US should rejoin the TPP. As we learned through the video, Vietnam is causing interruptions within the Western Hemisphere supply chain. The TPP adopts the yarn-forward policy. While this is beneficial to the US because they have the ability to produce textiles, there has also been talk of Vietnam investing in their textile industry. This is threatening to the US because if Vietnam is able to produce their own textiles, then the US will not be able to export them. Although Vietnam is the second largest source of apparel imports in the US, they do not use US made yarn. The is detrimental to the US because they will not be able to use their own textile exports within the TPP rejoin.
    Additionally, if the US joins the TPP it will disrupt their supply chain within the central American rejoin. If the US imports less apparel from those countries then they will be forced to export less textiles as well. If the US rejoins the TPP, US textile manufacturers worry that they will not be able to survive the competition from Vietnam and other Asian countries, therefore I do not think the US should rejoin the TPP.

    However, from the perspective of the US apparel industry, I believe that the US should rejoin the TPP. As we learned in the video, Vietnam is the second largest source of apparel imports in the US. These imports have extremely high tariffs, 10-30%, so joining the TPP will remove those tariffs and ultimately reduce costs for retailers and fashion brands. Also by joining the TPP, the US will have free access to other Asian countries apparel imports as well. From the perspective of the US apparel industry this a reason to join the TPP because it allows them to make more money by saving on sourcing costs.

    1. I agree with you Maddie! I also believe that the USA shouldn’t rejoin the TPP. Excellent point about how detrimental Vietnam not using US made yarn is to our industry. I believe that the US joining the TPP will also be disruptive to our supple chain, over 97% of Vietnam’s textile imports come from Asian countries, including China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. Less than 1% of Vietnam’s textile imports came from the United States in 2019. I don’t see a need for the USA to join TPP and agree with your points on how it could be bad for US textile manufactures and for our industry as a whole.

    2. Agree. And it is interesting to read/interpret NCTO’s latest call for Biden administration’s trade policy priorities: http://www.ncto.org/ncto-outlines-key-priorities-for-the-incoming-biden-administration-and-congress-to-strengthen-the-u-s-supply-chain-for-essential-products/
      1) The US textile industry does NOT encourage the Biden administration to rush to negotiate/join any new free trade agreement. 2) The US textile industry asks the Biden administration to “further strengthen our alliances with our existing free trade agreement and trade preference partner countries.”—it surely refer to USMCA and CAFTA-DR

  13. As some of my other classmates have said, I agree that the US should rejoin the TPP. I believe this would bring benefits to the U.S. and every other country involved in as well. Even though the TPP involves the yarn-forward rule of origin, it would be beneficial to the U.S. apparel companies. Joining the TPP would remove tariffs and reduce cost of Vietnam imports. This is crucial because Vietnam is the second largest source of apparel imports in the U.S. This being said, I do think rejoining has some disadvantages for the US textile industry. The US exports could decrease if they start to import less from the TPP countries. Because Vietnam would be able to produce their own textiles, then they won’t rely on the US for their textile exports anymore. Therefore, competition is very high from Vietnam. Because of all the pros and cons it is hard to determine whether the U.S. should join the TPP so, I am very interested to see how the Biden Administration will take on this task of negotiating or rejoining.

  14. I think it would be very beneficial for the US to rejoin the TPP. It wouldn’t just benefit the US, it would also aid the other countries participating. It doesn’t make sense that the US continues to trade with countries that have such high tariffs for imports/exports, like Vietnam, so by joining the TPP it would bring the tariff rate to zero. I think with COVID this could also be a good decision because it will help with the economy. It is important to establish stronger relationships with the countries in the TTP and by re-joining it will do just that.

  15. I think the United States should definitely rejoin the TPP. I believe that we definitely missed out on an opportunity when it first started and we should have followed the lead of the 11 other countries that participated. The tariffs that come with trading with Vietnam could be completely diminished if the United States joined. Because Vietnam is the second largest source of apparel imports, this would definitely have a positive effect for both Vietnam and the United States. It will also help us as a country improve our relationships with many other countries that are apart of the TTP as our current relationships could be improved.

  16. I agree with the many comments from students above that the US should rejoin the TPP. One reason I think the US should rejoin the TPP is its continuing trade with Vietnam and the tariffs the US faces. If the US rejoins the TPP there would be an economic benefit of eliminating the tariffs on imports from Vietnam, especially since Vietnam is the second largest source of apparel imports in the US, and could be becoming the world’s sixth-largest textile exporter in the years to come if they continue the growth they are at right now. Another reason I think the US should rejoin the TPP is that China is possibly joining the TPP, and as the world’s largest apparel and textile exporters, the US economy would benefit being in an agreement with them. Not only are their economic benefits for the US in this agreement, their are also social benefits. I think the US could create better relationships with the countries within the agreement by rejoining. Growing international relations could help the US in many other areas.

  17. If the US were to rejoin the TPP,the textile industry would get a huge break on tariffs, which would incidentally incentivise other countries to follow. As we continue to outsource from other countries and develop our supply chain, being a part of the TPP will be crucial. The tariff cut would save the US money, while being mutually beneficial. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the T&A industry has struggled greatly, so this tax break will help largely. It is important to be aware of the disadvantages that may come with the rejoining, such as inequality of import to export ratio, however, the pros outweigh the cons. With the TPP comes the passing of the yarn forward rules. The apparel industries do not directly benefit from the yarn-forward rules of origin in the ways the textile industry does, however they maintain a strong sense of production and keep sourcing and trade within the said region outlined in NAFTA that regulates preferred tariffs. That being said, the US would benefit greatly by rejoining the TPP

  18. I think that considering the benefits that the United States will have, rejoining the TPP sounds like a good idea. I think that if the US rejoins the TPP, they will gain benefits such as getting rid of tariffs in countries such as Vietnam. This will benefit the US greatly because of how relevant and important Vietnam is to the US’ textile and apparel industry, as it is one of their main sources of imports. Not only would the US have tariff benefits, but they would also benefit by improving and growing relationships with other countries in the TPP.

  19. I have mixed feelings about whether or not the US should re-join the Trans-Pacific Partnership. While it would help to remove tariffs and costs from importing goods from Vietnam, which has become in increasingly popular US manufacturing hub, the country has caused disruptions to the western hemisphere supply chain. While Vietnam is the second largest source of imports of apparel in the US, US manufactured yarn is not used. This is counterproductive to the US because they will not be able to rejoin the TPP by using their own textile exports. However, joining the TPP would help US companies save money with tariff cuts, providing much-needed COVID-19 relief. I’m personally torn, but it will be interesting to see what the Biden Administration’s first actions are on foreign policy and trade.

  20. This post provides much information about TPP and several countries which may affect the US to decide whether to rejoin TPP or not. To answer the discussion question: from the perspective of the US textile industry and US fashion brands and retailers, I think the United States should rejoin TPP. As the post lists, tariffs for the textile and apparel trades between TPP members can be reduced to zero. Also, TPP members are required to follow the ‘yarn-forward’ rules of origin. In my analysis, although it is similar to NAFTA among the US, Mexico, and Canada, I still believe the US can benefit. First, Vietnam is already the second-largest apparel exporter to the United States, rejoining TPP can save the tax on the imports. Second, except for Mexico and Canada, other TPP members would consider import from the US increasingly because the US is a large textile exporter. Based on the trade war with China, China is the most competitive supplier to the US. Rejoining TPP is a great opportunity for the US to develop the textile industry and improve the economy. Because China has not been a TPP member yet, other TPP members would consider the US first instead of China, which is the largest textile supplier globally.

  21. The TPP is joined by a large amount of countries to help worldwide trade. In my opinion, I am hoping the US decides to rejoin the TPP again. There are many pros and cons in doing such. First, although it would be nice for the US to have little to no tariffs with this deal, the TPP brings in a great commotion to the western hemisphere supply chain, and could potentially hurt the US from that. This could though, bring great relations to Vietnam, since there is no tariff to trade with them if rejoined to the TPP, Vietnam could provide us with a large portion of our imports at a lower cost. To me, there are more pros to rejoining the TPP than not. Overall, rejoining could save so much money, and would help to boost the US economy in the apparel industry.

  22. I think the U.S. should rejoin the TPP because the TPP’s reduction of apparel tariffs increases the possibility of U.S. trade import and export and promotes the development of the U.S. economy. The tariff rate for rejoining TPP apparel products will be reduced from 10% to 30% to zero. Although the “yarn forward” rule hinders the development of some American apparel industries, the United States can still reap huge benefits in US textile exports.

  23. I personally think that the United States should most certainly rejoin the TPP. I say this because by doing so not only would there be an enormous break on tariffs bringing them to zero but textile manufacturers would also be benefiting from passing the yard-forward rule. While this could also be seen as a con because apparel industries do not directly benefit from the yarn forward rule, NAFTA does regulate tariffs which can be seen as a crucial pro to consider. There are both pros and cons but in my opinion, the pro of cutting tariffs which would be saying money especially during COVID times where money may be tight is extremely important to take into consideration.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s