The Changing Face of Textile and Apparel “Made in Asia”

Video 1: How one Chinese shirt-maker uses automation to safeguard its future

Video 2: Chinese investors move clothing factory to Bangladesh

Video 3: Can Vietnam become the next China?

Discussion questions (for FASH455: Please finish watching ALL the three short videos above before sharing your viewpoints)

  1. How are textile and apparel “Made in Asia” changing its face? What are the driving forces of these changes?
  2. What are the examples of the “flying geese model” from the videos? Overall, why or why not do you think this model is still valid today?
  3. Why or why not do you think the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia?

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Author: Sheng Lu

Professor @ University of Delaware

27 thoughts on “The Changing Face of Textile and Apparel “Made in Asia””

  1. 1. How are textile and apparel “Made in Asia” changing its face? What are the driving forces of these changes?
    The textile and apparel industry in Asia are increasing automation and steadily implementing more technological advances throughout their factories. Such elements include robots and military grade camera lens for precise results in regards to measurements and details on clothing. The driving forces of these changes include older employees and difficulty finding younger employees willing to do the tedious work. Most older employees begin to struggle with eye-sight and dexterity which is crucial in the garment industry. More automation makes the handy work for secondary.
    2. What are the examples of the “flying geese model” from the videos? Overall, why or why not do you think this model is still valid today? The flying geese model is a dynamic regional division of labor in manufacturing based on the hierarchy of economic development in the region. I think the second video highlights how the in factory process can become more automated as the country becomes more economically stable. In certain aspects of the world this model is still relevant in developing countries.
    3. Why or why not do you think the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia?
    The U.S China tariff war has certainly impacted the apparel production in Asia as many manufacturers are seeking different countries to make their clothing. The video highlights that Bangladesh and Vietnam have been increasingly acquiring more business, which is likely due to the political issues of the U.S-China tariff war.

    1. great thoughts. As you said, while apparel production seems to be moving out of China as a result of the trade war, it still stays in Asia. This phenomenon is highly consistent with the conclusions of the flying geese model.

  2. 1. How are textile and apparel “Made in Asia” changing its face? What are the driving forces of these changes?
    The production of textile and apparel “Made in Asia” has become much more automated and technologically driven as nations in Asia become more economically developed. Many apparel manufacturers in China like the one featured in the video are beginning to replace human labor with automated machinery, signaling a significant shift in the level of their economic development.

    2. What are the examples of the “flying geese model” from the videos? Overall, why or why not do you think this model is still valid today?
    One example of the flying geese model is demonstrated through the ways in which Vietnam and China produce apparel. Although production in China has become more automated, Vietnam, a tier-four country, still employs a substantial amount of human labor to produce basic apparel items. In addition, about 90% of the textiles used by Vietnam to produce garments come from China, a tier-three country. This model is still valid today because according to this theory, there is a dynamic regional division of labor in manufacturing based on the hierarchy of economic development in the region. Based on the relations between Vietnam and China, it is evident that garment production in Asia is divided based on the nation’s stage of economic development.

    3. Why or why not do you think the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia?
    I think the US-China tariff was has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia because US retailers are shifting sourcing from China to other regions in Asia in order to avoid high tariffs. This shift has placed enormous cost pressures on regions like Vietnam and Bangladesh that wouldn’t normally be experiencing them. However, it is also important to note that China still remains the top exporter in Asia of apparel to the US and this will likely not change during the tariff war, especially for high-end products like dresses or outerwear.

    1. great thoughts! One follow up question–as you said, textile and apparel production is becoming more automated in Asia. Overall, why or why not do you think automation will change the “flying geese pattern”?
      I am also curious–should the US-China tariff war ended in the near future, will T&A production go back to China? OR why you think the decline of apparel sourcing from China is permanent?

  3. #1 Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” are changing its face by an increase in automation. As mentioned in the first video, there has been an extreme shift from human sewing and manmade products to machinery and automation, which has shifted the type of worker needed for manufacturing which will stem from technology.

    #2 Examples of the “flying-geese model” from the videos are seen in both China and Bangladesh, both which are considered developing countries. Both countries started out driven by their labor intensive practices, however, now the countries both have technological advancements that are shifting their economy and allowing for advances in the “flying-geese model.” I think this model is still valid today because it shows how countries progress from developing to developed and reflects how countries need to be able to handle the basic levels of manufacturing before they can move on to a more advanced level.

    #3 I think that the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally change the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia because it has brought up many issues post people did not realize were happening. Additionally, the tariff war has caused many companies to reevaluate where they conduct their business, which has ultimately led to a wider globalized economy.

    1. Good comments.
      The same two questions: 1) Overall, why or why not do you think automation will change the “flying geese pattern”?
      2) should the US-China tariff war ended in the near future, will T&A production go back to China? OR why you think the decline of apparel sourcing from China is permanent?

  4. #1. Made in Asia T&A is becoming far more automated, using advanced technology. Less of this apparel is being produced in China than in the past, as China is more developed and can focus its production on higher value added items that utilize the new technology.

    #2. The videos show the apparel production increase in Bangladesh and Vietnam as China develops past the prime point of garment production to focus more on textiles and man-made fibers. Bangladesh and Vietnam are less developed and therefore better equipped for garment production on the T&A supply chain.

    #3. I don’t think the U.S. – China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. While the tariffs have pushed more companies to find alternative sourcing destinations instead of China, this was already happening. Apparel production in China has become a lot more expensive due to the increasing cost of labor as the country developed. For this reason, less developed nations have taken a larger share of the production market, following the flying goose model. The tariff war has exasperated and perhaps quickened this dynamic switch.

  5. 1. Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” is definitely changing. All three videos presented how automation is a driving force in apparel manufacturing. These new factory technologies in are increasing production efficiency and are taking over a lot of the tasks garment workers previously had to do themselves. While this does make garment workers’ lives easier in a sense, as that they now have less work to do in the factory, it also makes their lives more difficult. There is always the chance that their jobs could be replaced by automation.

    2. I do believe the “flying geese model” is still valid today. Video 3 helped illustrate how Vietnam, a developing country, is undergoing a manufacturing boom. Vietnam has been manufacturing clothing in their country for years, but now, due to the U.S.-China trade war, apparel companies are shifting their manufacturing away from China and into Vietnam, meaning Vietnam has to produce an even larger volume of clothing. The video shows how their advanced automation is helping them increase their level of output and thrive in this fast-paced industry. Video 2 shows another example of how the “flying geese model” is still valid today. Bangladesh is now the second largest clothing exporting country. Liz Fashion factory is shown in the video with its advanced automation and thousands of workers. As mentioned in the video, the goal is not only making profits, but also creating modern professionals. Bangladesh is rising in the garment export market.

    3. I believe that the U.S. China tariff war has fundamentally changed the pattern of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. As seen in the videos, many companies have chosen to shift manufacturing out of China and into other countries such as Bangladesh and Vietnam. As I mentioned before, Bangladesh has become the world’s second largest clothing exporting country. Vietnam has hit a manufacturing boom and is now producing at much higher quantities. While “Made in China” has certainly not gone away, there is more and more apparel manufacturing taking place in other Asian countries as well.

  6. 1. Manufacturing in China is becoming more automated. Once known for being extremely labor intensive, Chinese workers are less and less attracted to factory jobs. The younger Chinese population does not want to be in that field and so automation helps make up for the lack of younger workers. It is clear that China is becoming more technologically advanced and using technology to make its manufacturing sector more efficient.
    2. The flying geese model is apparent by the types of products being manufactured. China was once manufacturing simple pieces with their abundant work force. As it has grown and developed it is now able to produce more sophisticated and complex textiles. The rate at which China is moving is following the flying geese model because as the country develops it is starts to export more advanced products than it did 20 years ago. For that reason the model is still relevant today and can be used while examining China’s market.
    3. I think the US- China trade war has had huge impacts and changes in Asia. For one, China is taking a huge hit in their exports to the US. Since tariffs were raised so high manufacturers and retailers look for other options in countries like Vietnam and Cambodia. Neither of these two countries has anywhere near the capacity of China in terms of apparel production. Many of their factories are not prepared for the sudden influx of orders and will struggle to meet the demand of US retailers. However this is also a good thing for those smaller Asian countries as it will boost their economies and provide jobs just like what happened to China so long ago.

    1. great analysis. BTW, don’t you think somehow we are in a similar situation like 30 years ago in the quota era? At that time, companies have to chase for the quota (for example, when the quota allocated to China was used up, companies have to source from elsewhere). Likewise, when Vietnam’s capacity is used up, companies today have to find alternative sourcing destinations. The question is–in the quota era, companies’ sourcing decision was heavily influenced by policy (quota), but how about today?

  7. 1) “Made in Asia” is changing its face by introducing more technology, such as robots due to the fact that a lot of younger people don’t want to do this kind of work anymore. They are using robots with cameras to save people from having to do tedious tasks that are much easier and faster for a robot to do. This changes the demand on workers because they need to ensure they are comfortable with using this technology. This change has also caused factories to hire more men than women because men tend to be better at technology than women are.
    2) I think the flying geese model is still valid today because everybody knows that China dominates when it comes to producing apparel, but now some other Asian countries have started to rise up within the past few years, Vietnam and Bangladesh being the biggest. As demonstrated in the flying geese model, now that China has become more developed and its costs start to go up, the Asian countries that are poorer than China are starting to produce more textiles and apparel for cheaper. However, China still remains the single largest apparel supplier to the U.S. retail market, being one of the geese up in the front of the model, but Vietnam and Bangladesh are very close behind. China used to be considered a very poor and undeveloped country, but now it has one of the strongest economies in the world. This exemplifies the flying geese model perfectly because it shows that there is an orderly upgrading process of which countries are making products.
    3) I think that the U.S. China Tariff War has changed the trade patterns in Asia by increasing the amount of US brands that are sourcing from countries like Vietnam and Cambodia. Since there are more expensive tariffs to source from China, a lot of brands are switching to these other less developed Asian countries because it is less expensive.

  8. #1. Technology has become the driving force of Asia. “Made in Asia” is changing its face by increasing the amount of technology utilized in its factories. As times are changing, younger workers are steering away from the labor-intensive work. Therefore, they have developed robots that will do the labor-intensive work for them. The increased use in technology is not only saving workers from doing tiresome work but also decreasing production time.

    #2. A good example given in the third video of the flying geese model is when they discussed how Vietnam is in the midst of a manufacturing rush. This proves that the flying geese model is still relevant to some countries today, due to the fact that the model is based upon economic advances and how it changes nations’ placement in the fashion industry. As we all know, China has always dominated the textile and apparel industry. Unfortunately, since China is caught in the trade dispute with the U.S., Vietnam has stepped up to the plate for companies who need their apparel manufacturing services.

    #3. I do think the U.S. and China trade dispute is having a major impact on textile and apparel production. Since China is in a manufacturing standstill while the issues are worked out between the United States, companies who need sourcing are turning to other nations like Vietnam.

  9. 1. Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” is changing its face by adopting automation in their factories. Automation has been proven to improve efficiency and safety. Originally, they wanted younger workers in their factories but instead they could only get older workers with health issues like weak eye sight. These factories have been trying to also increase the pay that their labor force is given.
    2. In the third video, it gives a clear example of how China is the lead geese in this flying geese model. As much as Vietnam is trying to increase their production in order to reach China’s standards, its going to take a toll on their production and lead times. Vietnam needs to first work on their economy and continue to adopt the automation into their factories. In order to get to wear China is, they need to follow the steps that China took in order to get to that position. This model is still valid today because you constantly see countries trying to cheat the program in order to get their products out the fastest and cheapest.
    3. The U.S.-China tariff was has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. Due to the increase in tariffs on products, many companies feel like they need to source somewhere other than China in order to save money. This is causing companies to move towards Bangladesh and Vietnam. This is great news for Vietnam and Bangladesh but bad new for the companies who have to move. These companies do not know the factories they are investing in and if something goes wrong, then their products and money are at risk.

  10. 1. For most consumers, I think that the idea of Made in Asia equates to cheap, low-quality goods made in sweatshops, with child labor, or other forms of unethical practices. While these things may have been true at one point, China has been developing at a rapid rate and is improving quality of life for workers not only by increasing wages, as seen in video 1, but by making the labor itself less physically demanding. The driving forces of those changes are improving technology and rise of transparency. The new technology allows manufacturers to change how they work, streamlining or eliminating monotonous tasks like quality assurance and cutting. The growth in technology has also created a demand for new types of employees who are more tech savvy. For example men in the workplace has risen from 0% to almost 40% of the factory workforce because apparently their experience with video games and computers translates to the machinery. Transparency has also given manufacturers more leverage when dealing with customers. In the past customers may have been looking for the cheapest options and been able to cover up ethical flaws, however now consumers care about the way clothes are manufactured and the impact their clothes have. Factories are able to pay their workers more, giving them a chance to improve their workers lives instead of it being a dead-end job like in the past.
    2. The Flying Geese model is particularly relevant in video 2. Under the model, a more developed country exports its goods and services to a less developed nation to benefit both countries. In this scenario, a Chinese group is outsourcing production to Bangladesh, providing the capital and technology for the factory to flourish. In turn Bangladeshi workers are given jobs and the economy is stimulated. In this case, the outcome appears to be positive. In general the Flying Geese model is still valid as their are many less developed countries that can be pulled along by more developed countries to accelerate their economic growth.
    3. The US-China Tariff war has primarily impacted where US companies go to source materials and manufacturing. Rising tariffs results in more expensive supply chains and so to avoid this companies look for alternatives nearby. In many cases China remains the best one stop manufacturing hub, however companies are starting to branch out to countries like Vietnam and Bangladesh to diversify their options. Depending on how the entire affair plays out, the marketplace for manufacturing in Asia could grow increasingly competitive.  

  11. 1. The nature if the T&A industry in Asia is completely changing as they become more technologically advanced, and the nature of their workforce shifts. The large scope of the T&A industry in Asia has rapidly brought on new technological advances such as automation and updated machinery. These changes are driven by the rise of an older workforce and lack of younger workers participating in the workforce, along with huge increases in the amount of production which have caused and increase in capital and therefore automation. As the Asian T&A industry is growing, it is obvious that an increase in capital has driven the changes that have occurred.
    2. The flying geese model is essentially a tier system or hierarchy of different sized economies with Tier 1 being most developed nations such as the US. This model is seen throughout the videos when describing different countries in Asia and how their economies are shifting tiers as shown in the model. China, Vietnam, and Bangladesh are all “developing countries”, however they are all not equally placed on the tier system. While Vietnam and Bangladesh are still tier 4 countries, China has pushed ahead and is seen as a larger and more developed country. This model is seen clearly today as the flying geese model is a more visual representation of how different sizes of economies have different capabilities and therefore have different manufacturing practices and divisions of labor. It seems that as countries become more automated, the flying geese model will see more countries moving towards a tier 1 or tier 2 economy as automation typically is a result of growth in a countries economy.
    3. While it is important to know that China remains and will stay as the largest Asian exporter of apparel to the US even after the trade war, US-China trade war has fundamentally changed the patterns of T&A apparel production in Asia. As these tariffs threaten the low prices that retailers have become accustomed to, an increase in broader sourcing strategies have led many US companies to diversify their sourcing to countries like Vietnam or Bangladesh where they can experience the low labor costs with no tariffs.

  12. 1. Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” is changing its face through automation and use of technology to improve production. Companies in this region adopt the use of robots and other machinery to improve quality of clothing made. Some of the driving forces behind these changes include an aging population, which results in lack of able-bodied workers to engage in the production process. Also there is the desire to reduce costs, cut down on production time, and minimize errors.

    2. Some examples of the “flying geese model” from the videos include the shift to automation instead of human labor during the production process. Overall, I think this model is still valid today because it represents the division of labor as per economic advancement.

    3.I think the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia because it has caused players in the T&A industry to seek other manufacturers. For example, due to the US-China tariff war, countries like Vietnam have had an influx in business opportunities. In essence, production is moving out of China as US companies are sourcing elsewhere.

  13. 1. Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” has change by using more technology through the process of labor. The driving forces are not having enough young people to do the work, low labor cost and being able to save money and time.
    2. Some examples of the flying geese model are the movement towards automation. In every single video, it talks about improving the way things are made by using technology. Overall I do think this model is still valid today because there are still developing countries that being used for cheap labor and resources.
    3. The US-China tariff war has changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia by forcing everyone to look for new resources and labor force. They all are forced to look elsewhere for their needs.

  14. 1. “Made in Asia” is changing its face by technology and automation, such as using robots. Young people are increasingly reluctant to do such jobs. Advanced technology could not only reduce labor costs, and the risk of labors’ work but also shorten worker training time, from six months to around one week, as the first video showed.
    2. I think that the “flying geese model” is still valid today. In the videos, Liz fashion is a Chinese company, located in Bangladesh. Chinese company not only offers the many job opportunities in the Fashion industry but also brings the automated equipment and capitals to Bangladesh for improving their producing level, as the “flying geese model” shows that who is working with whom in making what products will constantly change through an orderly upgrading process. Even though Bangladesh started using automation, Bangladesh still in Tier 4 with the least capital intensive. and developed countries remain pioneers of automation.
    3. I don’t think that the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. Although the United States has moved suppliers from China to Vietnam and Bangladesh, these countries still do not have enough capacity and technology as same as China, Vietnam can provide the in the lower value-added basic fashion items, but U.S retailers still need to source more sophisticated and higher value-added products from China.

  15. #1. Textile and apparel “Made in Asia” is drastically changing, as the country is beginning to adopt the use of automation. This is to ensure production efficiency, as well as remove workers from mind-numbing work. In addition, it is becoming increasingly harder to find enough young workers who are willing to do the back breaking work. This then leads to factories relying on older workers who have poor eyesight and dexterity that does not compare to younger workers. Altogether, the increased use in technology allows companies to improve efficiency and become more technologically advanced especially as nearby countries are becoming more competitive.
    #2. I believe the “flying geese model” is still valid today, which is displayed in video 2. Bangladesh is now the world’s second largest clothing exporting country which demonstrates the catching-up process of industrialization. As Bangladesh is a developing country, this shows that Bangladesh’s economy is shifting tiers as more fashion retailers are switching from sourcing in China to Bangladesh. As can be seen in the videos, Bangladesh is becoming more automated which has allowed the country to maintain the additional orders that the factories are now receiving. Although, in the past, China has pushed ahead to become the largest clothing exporter, video 2 represents the fact that Bangladesh is close behind despite being a small, developing country.
    #3. The U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. China’s industry has been majorly impacted, as fashion brands are moving to cheaper countries that are just as fast. The effect of rising tariffs has caused companies to panic and look for alternative countries. In this case, many U.S. fashion retailers are beginning to source from Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Vietnam as production moves out of China.

  16. 1. Similar to most developed nations, automation and technology are making waves of progression in the apparel industry in Asia. To name a few advancements as a result of automation, factory production levels are at an all-time high, accuracy is highly attainable and habitually executed, and turn-around times are becoming more efficient. In my opinion, the driving force of this industrialization is the robotic machinery that factories have implemented in the production process. Unfortunately, the greatest loss in this advancement is the lessening need for human labor in factory production lines. In fact, many employees are losing their jobs as a result of automation, and it is as a direct result of the high levels of efficiency, speed, and ability that these machines have mastered are proving to be far more valuable than that of an individual worker.
    2. The “flying geese model” is a paradigm postulated that illustrates how Asian nations will catch up with western nations in contingency with the regional hierarchy that states the production of commoditized goods would continuously move from the more advanced countries to the less advanced ones. It serves as a metaphorical figure that demonstrates how industrial development takes place in less-advanced countries who follow/ play ‘catch-up’ to the more advanced countries. In accordance with these videos, the movement of technological production and industrialization is sweeping across Asian nations further cultivating their production process and liquidating their need for human workers. For example, in each video they discuss the model as it relates to China and Bangladesh or even to China and Vietnam as it applies to their means of apparel production and the infiltration of automation. In many aspects I believe this model still reigns valid, there are countless developing nations in Asia that are currently moving through the four levels of the model. For instance, as time progresses, with the help of automation in the industry, these Asian nations may outgrow this model as human labor becomes less prevalent. However, in the meantime the developing nations will continue to follow the first goose in the V-shaped formation, who poses as the leading economy. Nations such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Malaysia will continue to follow in the pursuits of obtaining more advanced industrialization like Japan and the U.S., who are passing the dated technologies down to its followers as its own incomes rise and it moves into newer and more cultivated technologies.
    3. The US-China Tariff War has not only affected the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia, but it has fundamentally changed the relationship between the two nations in countless ways. United States retailers are no longer able to comfortably source products from China as a result of the high tariffs in fear that the consequences will fall on the shoulders of their companies’ consumers by having no choice but make pay the price gap. In fact, this has become such an issue that other means of sourcing are being utilized such as India, Vietnam, and even Bangladesh. However, although a significant shift in the high levels of sourcing from China has taken effect, much of their exporting is still to the US and unfortunately, due to the lack of equal competitors in the manufacturing arena, this will reign consistent for years and years to come.

  17. 1. Through the years since globalization has become a major factor in the production of apparel, “Made in China” or any other asian country has become synonymous with cheap clothing and poor labor conditions. With the addition of new technology in many of the factories in this region, Asian countries are able to eliminate the idea of pro working conditions while keeping the low prices of their clothing. Sew-bots are not only increasing the seat at which clothes can be made, they are also increasing the accuracy and replacing workers who have moved up in their careers.
    2. I believe that the flying-geese model still applies today. China has become a giant in the textile and apparel production industry and they are able to churn out apparel at a steady and reliable pace. Now that China has reached maturity, other countries in this region are beginning to grow in this industry. As mentioned in the videos, Vietnam has gone through the beginning stages of the flying-geese model and is currently experiencing a rush of apparel manufacturing.
    3. I believe that the current trade war has absolutely changed the patterns of textile trade between the US and China. For starters, trust has been lost and diplomacy has been tarnished. It will be extremely hard for the US to regain a friendly trade relationship with China after this.

  18. #1 The production of textile and apparel “Made in Asia” is changing due to the adoption of automation. Overall, these technological advances has improved efficiency. Mentioned in the first video, many companies are struggling to find younger workers who are willing to work in these factories and conditions, forcing them to turn to robots. These robots are scanning for defects, freeing humans from this work. Many companies believe automation will not replace jobs but will save production time and allow them to remain competitive through the technological advancements.
    #2 I believe that in certain aspects of the world the “flying geese model” is still relevant today. There is a dynamic shift under the flying geese model, with who is working with whom in making what products and will constantly change through an orderly upgraded process. Throughout the second video, it is highlighted how the factory processes can become more automated as the country becomes more economically stable. Chinese investors have moved clothing factories to Bangladesh to not only improve the fashion industry with possible jobs but with other opportunities as well for the country. Additionally, in video 3, Vietnam and China were able to demonstrate the flying geese model. Production in China has continuously advanced through automation, however, Vietnam, still relies heavily on China, about 90% of raw materials. The garment production in Asia is heavily divided based on the nation’s stage of economic development.
    #3 I believe the US vs China trade war has not only affected the patterns of textile and apparel production in Asia, it has also changed the overall relationship between the two countries. Many US apparel retailers and brands, are being forced to relocate their sourcing to other countries, where trust and technology are lacking. However, many brands still will remain sourcing in China, allowing them to stay the top manufacturing location. I believe that it will be interesting to see the impact of the high tariffs not only on US brands but the US consumers as well.

  19. #1
    The production in China is ultimately becoming much more technology driven. This is mainly because of the precision robots can give when making the clothing, that the older employees just can’t. Humans are more likely to make a mistake when producing the clothing, especially when they are growing older each day. The video also mentions that it is becoming harder for the factories to employ younger workers, which again provides reason to automate the apparel making process.

    #2
    I think that the “flying geese model” is still valid today in many countries. Vietnam and Bangladesh are two great examples of this model for they both are playing catch up with the fully matured countries within the textile and apparel industry like China. Bangladesh proves that they are using the “flying geese model” because they are the second largest exporter of apparel goods and they continue to work with large retailers. Both countries, Vietnam and Bangladesh, were able to advance their economies with the production of apparel.

    #3
    The US – China trade war has definitely affected the way production is happening in Asia because many retailers are avoiding working with China apparel producers so that they don’t have to pay the high tariffs. Because of this retailers are looking towards other countries within Asia to produce their clothing, but still China remains the largest exporter in Asia.

  20. 1) How are textile and apparel “Made in Asia” changing its face? What are the driving forces of these changes?
    Textile and apparel “made in Asia” are changing its face by increasing automation and implementing more technology in their factories. Apparel manufacturing, known for being more labor-intensive in the past, has become increasingly less appealing to younger workers in Asia, driving companies to turn to technology and automation instead. With this being said, most of the workers willing to do the hard labor in factories tend to be on the older side. Older people have more difficultly seeing and overall do not compare to the productivity of young employees. Due to this, factories in Asia have turned to new advances in technology in order to maintain, or even increase production efficiency.

    2)What are the examples of the “flying geese model” from the videos? Overall, why or why not do you think this model is still valid today?
    The flying geese model is a dynamic regional division of labor in manufacturing based on a hierarchy of economic development in that region. These videos show how the countries in Asia have been able to shift tiers (as shown in the model) through economic growth. The flying geese model is demonstrated in these videos in both Bangladesh and China (tier 3 countries, both considered to be developing countries. China and Bangledesh, once focused strictly on labor intensive practices in manufacturing, have implemented technological advancements that have, as a result, shifted their economies into becoming more developed nations – enabling to advance in the model as well. I think this model is still valid today, simply based off the fact that the flying geese model is essentially a visual look into how countries vary in their capabilities and practices in production. In addition, the model also represents the gradual economic progress in a country evolving from a developing nation to a developed nation.

    3)Why or why not do you think the U.S.-China tariff war has fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia?
    In my opinion, I think the U.S. and china trade dispute haws fundamentally changed the patterns of textile and apparel production and trade in Asia. So many companies source from China due to their extremely low prices / labor costs. With this dispute, many U.S. companies have been forced to turn elsewhere to source. Several U.S. companies have began to think outside the box and practice alternative sourcing strategies that turn away from producing in China. Such strategies include sourcing in countries such as Bangladesh and Vietnam, where companies can still source at low labor costs in addition to avoiding unwanted tariffs, keeping their prices low.

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