Resources for Learning about Cotton: FASH455 Exclusive Interview with Shannon Brady, CottonWorks™ Student Ambassador

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The picture above: Shannon Brady, Junior, UD Fashion Merchandising Major (Fourth one from the left in the front row) visited Cotton Inc together with other Cotton Student Ambassadors.

Question: What is the CottonWorks™ Ambassador program about and what is your role as an ambassador?

The CottonWorks™ ambassador program is a program where students in fashion and apparel related majors get to promote CottonWorks™ on their college campuses. Ambassadors are charged with helping faculty and students understand the resources available through CottonWorks™ as well as promote this resource through social media. This semester there are twelve ambassadors (including myself) from 12 different schools across the country.

My role as an ambassador is to raise awareness about CottonWorks™ on campus as it is a new program here at the University of Delaware. In January of this year, I had the opportunity to visit the Cotton Incorporated Headquarters in Cary, North Carolina. I, along with other CottonWorks™ ambassadors participated in an all-day CottonWorks™ training as well as a tour of the production facilities at Cotton Incorporated. I got to see everything from raw cotton to state-of-the-art laser finished denim. It was a unique experience and such a cool way to see the material I learned about in class come to life. 

Question: Cotton Incorporated recently launched a new CottonWorksTMprogram to help industry professionals and emerging professionals (like our FASH students) know more about cotton. Can you give us an overview of the program, particularly the learning resources related to the sourcing of cotton products?

CottonWorks™ is a free website where students and professionals can access a multitude of resources about cotton and the fashion and apparel industry.  The site offers many learning resources. Detailed guides are offered on topics such as sourcing and manufacturing, retail and marketing, fabric and technology, fashion and trend, and sustainability. These topics really apply to the fashion curriculum at UD. Additionally, the site offers a mobile-friendly textile encyclopedia where students can look up any textile related word anytime, anywhere.

However, the site offers more than just learning resources. CottonWorks™ is a great supplemental learning tool, but the site also offers emerging professionals ways to get engaged with their industry. Free webinars and workshops are offered through the website and are a great way to engage with industry professionals and learn about the issues pressing the industry right now. Their next webinar is on Tuesday 24 April 2018 registration is open on the CottonWorks™ website, and the topic of discussion is Cotton’s Biodegradability in Aquatic Environments.

Particularly regarding learning resources on sourcing cotton products, the sources and manufacturing topic on the website offers dozens of guides all kinds of cotton products, ranging from denim to cotton nonwovens.

Last but not the least, the Executive Cotton Update and Monthly Economic Letter, both posted every month at cottonworks.com/news are great resources for students and industry professionals interested in knowing what is happening in the U.S. and world cotton industry.

Question: Developing a sustainable supply chain is critical for the textile and apparel industry. So how is cotton related to sustainability? What are the facts important to know?

Cotton Incorporated is committed to being at the forefront of cotton sustainability, and the CottonWorks™ site offers many resources on how cotton is related to sustainability, including guides on responsible cotton production and manufacturing because sustainability happens throughout the lifecycle of cotton.

Cotton is a natural fiber, unlike some manmade fibers such as polyester it can biodegrade. If you log on to CottonWorks™ website you can view a recap of their webinar last month that went in depth about cotton’s biodegradability in soil and septic environments.

Additionally, CottonWorks™ has information on campaigns such as Cotton LEADS™ and Blue Jeans Go Green™ to promote the sustainability of cotton. Cotton LEADS™ is a joint program with Australia and the United States that supports a reliable and responsible cotton supply chain through five core principles of sustainability, use of best practices and traceability in the supply chain. Blue Jeans Go Green™ initiative collects denim sent to landfills and recycles it in partnership with Bonded Logic Inc. You can learn more about both these initiatives on the CottonWorks™ site at cottonworks.com/topics/sustainability.

Question: What are the opportunities for our FASH and UD students to get involved with CottonWorks™ and learn more about cotton?

Students can get started today! By registering for a free account on cottonworks.com, they have access to all of the amazing resources I touched on and many more. Additionally, they can follow @cotton_works on Instagram and Twitter to learn more about cotton and get cotton inspiration for their projects. 

I will also be hosting a tabling event where students can learn more about these resources, talk to me, and win free food and prizes on Thursday 19 April 2018 in Perkins! There will be more tabling events in the future that I will be posting about in my social media as well.

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Rana Plaza Case Study: Discussion Questions from FASH455

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#1 How shall we describe the relationship between the Alliance and the Accord? Are they collaborators or competitors? Do you think the Alliance and the Accord can join forces?

#2 How many inspectors are “enough” for Bangladesh? The case study mentions that the Alliance and the Accord are observing around 2,000 factories, but how about the other 3,000 in Bangladesh? And how about those unknown and “undocumented” factories, where the working conditions could be even worse?

#3 Do Western fashion brands genuinely care about what is happening in the Bangladeshi garment factories? Or do they actually care about their own interests—profit, public image and reputation among consumers?

#4 What has made Western fashion brands stay in Bangladesh after the Rana Plaza tragedy instead of moving their sourcing orders to other Asian countries in the area such as Cambodia and Vietnam?

#5 How transparent companies’ supply chain should be? Should fashion brands be required to disclose more supply chain information—such as where their products were made and who made them? What could be the difficulty of enforcing a more transparent apparel supply chain?

#6 In addition to more frequent inspections, what other measures can be taken to improve social responsibility practices in the garment industry?  

#7 Four years after the Rana Plaza, are you satisfied with the changes that have happened in Bangladesh? What major social responsibility problems in the Bangladeshi garment industry remain unsolved?

[Please feel free to join our online discussion. For the purpose of convenience, please mention the question # in your reply/comment.]

Gail Strickler, Former Assistant US Trade Representative for Textiles, on Trump’s Trade Policy

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Gail Strickler, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Textiles (2009-2015), who negotiated the textile chapter under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), visited UD on April 13 and delivered a public lecture on The Global Apparel Industry – Style and Substance. The event is part of the Fashion and Diplomacy Lecture Series sponsored by the Institute for Global Studies and the Department of Fashion and Apparel Studies.

During the talk, Gail made a few comments regarding trade policy in the Trump administration:

First, Gail believes that the existing U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs), trade preference programs (PTAs) and the U.S. commitments at the World Trade Organization (WTO) are unlikely to be undone by President Trump because retaliatory actions from other trading partners would be inevitable.

Second, regarding the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Gail doesn’t think the proposed renegotiation would threaten the benefits presently enjoyed by the U.S. textile and apparel industry. Gail also thinks the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a lifeline for the U.S. domestic textile manufacturing sector. Notably, NAFTA and CAFTA-DR together account for almost 70% of U.S. yarn and fabric exports.

Third, as observed by Gail, Wilbur Ross, the Commerce Secretary, has been given an expanded role in trade in the Trump Administration. Gail believes Ross’s appointment is likely to bode well for NAFTA and CAFTA-DR on textiles because Ross until recently owned the International Textile Group (ITG), which has significant investments in Mexico and relies heavily on CAFTA-DR for its textile sales.

However, Gail doesn’t think concentrating on trade deficits to define trade policy is a very “good method” of navigating the trade world. Interesting enough, last time when the U.S. trade deficit significantly shrank was during the 2008 financial crisis.  

Gail is also a strong advocator of sustainability in the textile and apparel sector. She believes that trade programs can play a vital role in encouraging sustainable development, improving labor practices and facilitating sustainable regional supply chains. According to Gail, powerful the labor provisions in trade programs can be if strong incentives are coupled with a credible threat of rapid enforcement – little evidence of effectiveness if only one (or fewer) of these conditions is met. However, comparing with enforcing labor provisions, Gail finds promoting and enforcing environmental sustainability standards through trade agreements is much more complex in the textile and apparel sector and will require creativity and strong participation from private sectors and consumers.

Before the public lecture, Gail visited FASH455 and had a special discussion session with students on topics ranging from the textile and apparel rules of origin in TPP, NAFTA renegotiation, AGOA renewal and state of the U.S. textile and apparel industry.

The 2 Euro T-shirt

 

This video is a great reminder of the impact of our fashion apparel industry, in particular through trade and sourcing. One key learning objective of FASH455 is to help students get aware of those critical global agendas that are highly relevant to the textile and apparel sector.

Discussion Question: After watching the video, do you have any new thoughts about how you can contribute to the building of a better world as a FASH major?

Global Trade of Used Clothing (Updated: October 2015)

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GlobalMapUSedClothing

United States

  • Generates 1.4 million tons of used clothing annually
  • Exports 800,000 tons of used clothing annually
  • 20% of used clothing sold domestically in thrift stores
  • Non-wearable material of used clothing is reprocessed into fibers for upholstery, insulation, soundproofing, carpet padding, building and other materials.

 Central and South America

  • Very large used clothing market in most countries
  • Imports of used clothing mostly come from the United States
  • Cotton wipers made from used clothing are exported back to the United States

Europe

  • Generates 1.5-2 million tons of used clothing annually
  • Large used clothing sorting centers located in Western and Eastern Europe
  • 10-12% used clothing (only those top quality) sold in local secondhand shops

Africa

  • One of the largest used clothing markets in the world
  • 80% of population wear secondhand clothes
  • Most used clothing imported from the United States, Europe, India and Pakistan

East Asia

  • Most used clothing is collected in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan
  • Countries in the region also import used clothing from the United States, Europe, India and Pakistan
  • Some large used clothing sorting centers are located in Malaysia and Philippines.

India and Pakistan

  • Residual used clothing are imported and sorted by grading companies
  • Wearable used clothing is extracted from “mixed rags” and sold locally or shipped to Africa
  • Recycled yarns are used to make new sweaters
  • Cotton wipers made from used clothing are exported to the United States

Australia

  • Used clothing is collected and sold through local shops and exported

Source: Planet Aid (http://www.planetaid.org); UNComtrade (2015)

EU Commission: Skills for Jobs in the EU Textile and Clothing Industry to Evolve

In a recent analysis report, the EU Commission foresees that skills needed by jobs in the EU textile and clothing industry will continue to evolve from 2013 to 2025. Specifically, the report argues that:

First, employment in the EU textile and clothing sector is forecast to decline by 13.4% from 2.5 million in 2013 to 2.1million in 2025. Even with shrinking employment levels, because of the need to replace nearly 1 million workers forecast to retire or leave the sector, about 611,000 job openings are anticipated from 2013 to 2025.

Second, employment in the EU textile and clothing sector is no just declined, but also evolved. From 2013 to 2025, demand for “crafted and related occupations” as well as “plant and machine operators and assemblers” will decline 34% and 13% respectively, whereas job openings for “technician and associated professional occupations” are estimated to grow at a modest rate. Among the estimated 611,000 job openings, 93% will require high or medium level qualifications.

Third, in terms of specific skills needed by the EU textile and clothing sector based on where the sector might progress towards 2020:

1) Technical production competencies will remain central to recruitment with increased focus on the demand for versatile staffs that can operate across different workstations.

2) Supply chain management, business, sales and marketing skills (including the skills in international trade) are growing in importance. For many EU textile and clothing companies, “trade has taken place of production”.

3) The EU textile and clothing industry is further expecting skills on technology, innovation and sustainability. Leading technology-led areas include mass customization, 3D body measurement, advanced CAD and eCommerce technologies, internet infrastructures for custom-tailored clothing and business-to-consumer eCommerce among retailers.

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Outlook of the U.S. Textile Industry in 2013

The latest industry outlook proposed by the Textile World argues that in 2013 the U.S. textile industry will improve industry strategy and planning in the following areas:

  • increased management emphasis in such areas as sourcing, inventory control
  • use of more flexible and efficient machinery and equipment
  • new and upgraded consumer products,
  • more ecologically friendly offerings
  • more Made-in-USA labels

 Don’t misunderstand/misinterpret these terms. The proposed strategies actually tell us:

1. the U.S. textile industry will become even more capitalized in production (as the result of “using more flexible and efficient machinery and equipment”).

2. the success of the U.S. textile industry relies on import (that’s why “management of sourcing” is suggested to be emphasized), despite the intension to promote “made in USA” label which has more to do with the current “rules of origin” defining the nationality of the products.

3. the softgoods industry (textile, apparel and related retailing) is a highly buyer-driven industry. Even textile mills have realized the importance of understanding and directly reaching the consumers.

4. sustainability is a major factor driving technical reform and upgrading in the textile industry. Other than the environmental concerns, there is another strategy behind the efforts: when the U.S. textile industry is fully ready to “be able to produce in a sustainable way”, it will ask for legislation support to require “everybody”(including imported products) to meet the same environmental standards(professionally, we call it “technical barriers of trade”). Developing countries can compete on price, but definitely cannot compete on technology and capital which are the basis of achieving “sustainability”.  Bu then, you will see sustainability becomes a real game changer.     

 Another relevant forecast made by the article “But holding these costs down through efficiency gains can also have a negative impact —namely, a smaller industry workforce. In the textile sector, for instance, squeezed by productivity gains, overall employment should drop from 232,000 in 2012 to near 209,000 by 2015.” As we menioned in the class, technology kills jobs too, although new types of jobs will be created at the same time–but with totally different skill requirements.