CRS Reports on Trade Issues

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(Updated: November 2020)

Covid-19 and international trade

Global Economic Effects of COVID-19, November 19, 2020

COVID-19: Potential Implications for International Security Environment—Overview of Issues and Further Reading for Congress, November 3, 2020

Introduction to the U.S. Economy: GDP and Economic Growth, October 30, 2020

COVID-19: China Medical Supply Chains and Broader Trade Issues, October 8, 2020

Global Economic Growth Forecasts: Impact of COVID-19, September 1, 2020

COVID-19 International Responses: Resources for Comparison with U.S. Policies, August 14, 2020

Latin America and the Caribbean: Impact of COVID-19, October 7, 2020

Export Restrictions in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic, August 25, 2020

Temporary Deferment of Import Duty Payments, April 30, 2020

COVID-19: International Trade and Access to Pharmaceutical Products, March 30, 2020

COVID-19: Global Implications and Responses, June 12, 2020

The Coronavirus: U.S.-China Economic Considerations, March 2, 2020

Overview of International Trade and U.S. Trade Policy

U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress, November 17, 2020

U.S. Trade Policy: Background and Current Issues, September 15, 2020

Trade Remedies: Antidumping, September 10, 2020

U.S. Government Procurement and International Trade, September 9, 2020

Managed Trade and Quantitative Restrictions: Issues for Congress, August 18, 2020

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and U.S. Trade Agreements, August 8, 2020

U.S. Trade Debates: Select Disputes and Actions, July 20, 2020

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act: Origins, Evolution, and Use, July 14, 2020

Revoking Hong Kong’s Preferential Trade Status: Legal Framework and Implications, June 5, 2020

Rules of Origin, June 19, 2020

CFIUS: New Foreign Investment Review Regulations, May 28, 2020

Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade, May 12, 2020

Major Votes on Free Trade Agreements and Trade Promotion Authority, July 22, 2020

International Trade: Rules of Origin, March 3, 2020

Major Agricultural Trade Issues in 2020, February 27, 2020

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) and Tariffs: Historical Background and Key Issues, February 20, 2020

International Trade and Finance: Overview and Issues for the 116th Congress, January 17, 2020

Trade Remedies: Antidumping and Countervailing Duties, December 4, 2019

U.S. Trade: Recent Trends and Developments,  August 13, 2019

Trump Administration Tariff Actions: Frequently Asked Questions, February 22, 2019

U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions, January 29, 2019

U.S. Trade with Major Trading Partners, December 18, 2018

U.S. Trade Trends and Developments, December 3, 2018

U.S. Tariff Policy: Overview, CRS In Focus, November 28, 2018

U.S. Trade Policy Functions: Who Does What?, CRS In Focus, November 1, 2018

Tit-for-Tat Tariff Measures and U.S. Trade Policy, July 11, 2018

The Economic Effects of Trade: Overview and Policy Challenges, April 20, 2018

International Trade and Finance: Overview and Issues for the 115th Congress, March 5, 2018

Presidential Authority over Trade: Imposing Tariffs and Duties, December 9, 2016

U.S. Withdrawal from Free Trade Agreements: Frequently Asked Legal Questions, September 7, 2016

U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy: Frequently Asked Questions, March 25, 2016

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties, April 15, 2013

Impact of Trade Agreements and Trade Preference Programs

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) Program, February 26, 2020

Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements: Issues for Congress, May 17, 2018

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners, April 24, 2018

International Trade Agreements and Job Estimates, April 18, 2018

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, February 26, 2014

Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options, January 10, 2013

U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreement, January 6, 2011

Textile and Apparel Trade and Trade Policy

Textile and Apparel Sectors Disagree on Certain Provisions of the Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Agreement, CRS In Focus, March 5, 2019

Renegotiating NAFTA and U.S. Textile Manufacturing, October 30, 2017

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, September 1, 2016

U.S. Clothing and Textile Trade with China and the World: Trends Since the End of Quotas, July 10, 2007

DR-CAFTA, Textiles, and Apparel, May 20, 2005

Haiti Textile Industry: Impact of Proposed Trade Assistance, February 18, 2005

Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin in International Trade, May 23, 2003

Textile and apparel Trade Issues, February 1, 2002

USMCA (NAFTA 2.0)
The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), July 27, 2020

NAFTA and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), March 2, 2020

U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement, July 1, 2020

USMCA: A Legal Interpretation of the Panel-Formation Provisions and the Question of Panel Blocking, January 30, 2020

USMCA: Amendment and Key Changes, January 30, 2020

USMCA: Implementation and Considerations for Congress, January 30, 2020

USMCA: Labor Provisions, January 10, 2020

USMCA: Investment Provisions, January 8, 2020

USMCA: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), January 6, 2020

Enforcing International Trade Obligations in USMCA: The State-State Dispute Settlement Mechanism, January 3, 2020

USMCA: Motor Vehicle Provisions and Issues, December 19, 2019

Dairy Provisions in USMCA, December 16, 2019

President Trump’s Possible Tariffs on Mexican Goods: Potential Economic Effects June 6, 2019

USMCA and Mexico’s New Labor Law, CRS Insight, May 22, 2019

Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, April 8, 2019

Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, October 5, 2018

NAFTA and the Preliminary U.S.-Mexico Agreement, September 19, 2018

NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization, July 26, 2018

State Exports to NAFTA countries in 2016, October 24, 2017

NAFTA and Motor Vehicle Trade, July 28, 2017

North American Free Trade Agreement: Notification for Renegotiation, CRS Insight, May 19, 2017

Renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): What Actions Do Not Require Congressional Approval?, CRS Legal Sidebar, April 27, 2017

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), February 22, 2017

Renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): What Actions Do Not Require Congressional Approval?, CRS Legal Sidebar, January 26, 2017

U.S.-China trade deal (2020–)

U.S.-China Phase I Deal: Agriculture, February 7, 2020

U.S. Signs Phase One Trade Deal with China, January 17, 2020

U.S.-Japan Free Trade Agreement

“Stage One” U.S.-Japan Agreement: Agriculture, October 21, 2020

U.S.-Japan relations, April 29, 2020

U.S.-Japan Trade Agreement Negotiations, January 16, 2020

“Stage One” U.S.-Japan Trade Agreements, December 20, 2019

Section 301 Investigation 

Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974: Origin, Evolution, and Use, November 16, 2020

Section 301 Tariffs on Goods from China: International and Domestic Legal Challenges, November 13, 2020

Section 301 Investigations: Vietnam’s Timber Trade and Currency Practices, November 12, 2020

Section 301: Tariff Exclusions on U.S. Imports from China, October 26, 2020

Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 , August 31, 2020

Section 301 Investigations: Foreign Digital Services Taxes (DSTs), August 31, 2020

Presidential Authority to Address Tariff Barriers in Trade Agreements Under Section 103(a), January 8, 2020

Escalating U.S. Tariffs: Affected Trade, January 29, 2020

Escalating Tariffs: Timeline, January 29, 2020

China’s Retaliatory Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture: In Brief, September 24, 2019

Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China, June 26, 2019

Section 232 Investigation 

Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, June 3, 2020

Section 232 Auto Investigation, January 31, 2020

Section 232 Investigation: Uranium Imports, July 16, 2019

Section 232 Investigations: Overview and Issues for Congress, August 24, 2020

Threats to National Security Foiled? A Wrap Up of New Tariffs on Steel and Aluminum, March 12, 2018

Section 201 Investigation

Trade Remedies: Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, August 22, 2018

Trade Promotion and Authority (TPA)

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), December 23, 2019

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, June 21, 2019

Labor Issues in International Trade and Trade Agreements
Worker Rights Provisions in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), September 18, 2020

Section 307 and Imports Produced by Forced Labor, July 20, 2020

Labor Enforcement Issues in U.S. FTAs, March 2, 2020

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements, February 22, 2016

Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) April 21, 2016

Trade Deficit

What’s the Difference?—Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, May 20, 2020

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices, February 24, 2020

The U.S. Trade Deficit: An Overview, December 16, 2019

Trade Deficits and U.S. Trade Policy, June 28, 2018

Should the U.S. Trade Deficit be Redefined?, CRS Insight, March 17, 2017

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit, October 7, 2016

What’s the Difference?—Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, April 23, 2018

U.S.-China Trade Relationship


China’s 14th Five-Year Plan: A First Look, November 12, 2020

China Issues New Export Control Law and Related Policies, October 26, 2020

U.S. Export Control Reforms and China: Issues for Congress, August 21, 2020

The Made in China 2025 Initiative: Economic Implications for the United States, August 11, 2020


Tracking China’s Global Economic Activities: Data Challenges and Issues for Congress, July 14, 2020

Revoking Hong Kong’s Preferential Trade Status: Legal Framework and Implications, June 5, 2020

What’s the Difference?—Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, March 20, 2020

Tracking China’s Global Economic Activities: Data Challenges and Issues for Congress, April 2, 2020

U.S.-China Trade and Economic Relations: Overview, January 29, 2020

Trade Dispute with China and Rare Earth Elements, June 28, 2019

China-U.S. Trade Issues, June 23, 2019

China-U.S. Trade Issues, July 30, 2018

China’s Retaliatory Tariffs on Selected U.S. Agricultural Products, April 4, 2018

World Trade Organization

Selecting a New WTO Director-General: Implications for the Global Trading System, November 13, 2020

The World Trade Organization, September 25, 2020

WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), September 17, 2020

World Trade Organization: Overview and Future Direction, August 21, 2020

Reforming the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, July 22, 2020

The WTO Withdrawal Resolutions, May 21, 2020

Internet Regimes and WTO E-Commerce Negotiations, January 28, 2020

The WTO’s Appellate Body Loses Its Quorum: Is This the Beginning of the End for the “Rules-Based Trading System”?, December 16, 2019

Dispute Settlement in the WTO and U.S. Trade Agreements, December 6, 2019

The “National Security Exception” and the World Trade Organization, November 28, 2018

Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on U.S. Domestic Support, September 6, 2018

The World Trade Organization (WTO): U.S. Participation at Risk?, July 31, 2018

The World Trade Organization, September 7, 2017

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview, November 26, 2016

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)

The Trump Administration’s Prosper Africa Initiative, November 17, 2020

U.S. Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview, May 20, 2020

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization, April 22, 2015

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)

TPP countries sign new CPTPP without the United States, March 9, 2018

Brexit and EU

The European Union: Questions and Answers, October 27, 2020

Brexit and Outlook for U.S.-UK Trade Agreement, July 8, 2020

U.S.-European Relations in the 116th Congress, May 27, 2020

Transatlantic Relations: U.S. Interests and Key Issues, April 27, 2020

The United Kingdom: Background, Brexit, and Relations with the United States, April 3, 2020

U.S.-EU Trade Agreement Negotiations: Trade in Food and Agricultural Products, February 27, 2020

Brexit: Status and Outlook, January 13, 2020

New UK Leadership: Implications for Brexit, July 31, 2019

U.S.-EU Trade and Investment Ties: Magnitude and Scope, February 18, 2020

Proposed U.S.-EU Trade Negotiations: Hitting Pause on a Trade War?, August 9, 2018

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Issues, August 1, 2018

U.S.-UK Free Trade Agreement: Prospects and Issues for Congress, April 14, 2017

Economic Implications of a United Kingdom Exit from the European Union, July 14, 2016

Other Free Trade Agreements

U.S.-Kenya FTA negotiations, May 28, 2020

African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), February 7, 2020

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Status and Recent Developments, November 19, 2020

EU-Japan FTA: Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, June 26, 2020

U.S. Trade Relations with Trading Partners

U.S.-Brazil Trade Relations, October 23, 2020

U.S. Manufacturing and Trade

Buying American: The Berry and Kissell Amendments, February 5, 2020 

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival, July 19, 2019

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective, February 21, 2018

Buying American: Protecting U.S. Manufacturing Through the Berry and Kissell Amendments, May 18, 2017

Trade Implications of the President’s Buy American Executive Order, CRS Insight, May 2, 2017

The Meaning of “Made in USA”, May 5, 2017

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), September 23, 2020

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Overview, November 7, 2019

Trump Administration’s Proposed Removal of Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Benefits for India and Turkey, March 15, 2019

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA)

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms, October 13, 2020

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers and the TAA Reauthorization Act of 2015, August 14, 2018

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers, August 1, 2016

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (MTBs)

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (MTBs), August 13, 2020

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills: Overview and Issues for Congress, April 22, 2016

Trade in Services and Digital Trade

Data Flows, Online Privacy, and Trade Policy, March 26, 2020

U.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues, January 22, 2020

Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy, May 21, 2019

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations: Overview and Issues for Congress, January 3, 2017

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

The United States Withdraws from the TPP, CRS Insight, May 4, 2017

Moving On: TPP Signatories Meet in Chile, CRS Insight, March 16, 2017

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Analysis of Economic Studies, June 30, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and Issues for Congress, June 14, 2016

TPP Financial Services Data Flows, CRS Insight, June 3, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief, February 9, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Strategic Implications, February 3, 2016

Border-Adjusted Taxes

Border-Adjusted Taxes and the Rules of the World Trade Organization: The Distinction Between Direct and Indirect Taxes, CRS Legal Sidebar, March 22, 2017

International Competitiveness: An Economic Analysis of VAT Border Tax Adjustments, July 30, 2009

Other Topics

Foreign Trade Remedy Investigations of U.S. Agricultural Products, November 10, 2020

International Trade and E-commerce, July 23, 2020

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), June 10, 2020

Blockchain and International Trade, CRS In Focus, updated June 25, 2019

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law, September 19, 2018