CRS Reports on Trade Issues



(Updated: October 2019)

Overview of International Trade and U.S. Trade Policy

Major Votes on Free Trade Agreements and Trade Promotion Authority, July 30, 2019

U.S. Trade Policy: Background and Current Issues, July 22, 2019

U.S. Trade Debates: Select Disputes and Actions, July 15, 2019

U.S. Trade: Recent Trends and Developments,  August 13, 2019

Trump Administration Tariff Actions: Frequently Asked Questions, February 22, 2019

U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions, January 29, 2019

International Trade and Finance: Overview and Issues for the 116th Congress, January 29, 2019

U.S. Trade with Major Trading Partners, December 18, 2018

U.S. Trade Trends and Developments, December 3, 2018

U.S. Tariff Policy: Overview, CRS In Focus, November 28, 2018

U.S. Trade Policy Functions: Who Does What?, CRS In Focus, November 1, 2018

U.S. Trade Debates: Select Disputes and Actions, August 28, 2018

Tit-for-Tat Tariff Measures and U.S. Trade Policy, July 11, 2018

The Economic Effects of Trade: Overview and Policy Challenges, April 20, 2018

International Trade and Finance: Overview and Issues for the 115th Congress, March 5, 2018

U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy: Frequently Asked Questions, March 25, 2016

The Economic Effects of Trade: Overview and Policy Challenges, July 5, 2016

Impact of Trade Agreements and Trade Preference Programs

Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements: Issues for Congress, May 17, 2018

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners, April 24, 2018

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, February 26, 2014

Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options, January 10, 2013

U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreement, January 6, 2011

Textile and Apparel Trade and Trade Policy

Textile and Apparel Sectors Disagree on Certain Provisions of the Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Agreement, CRS In Focus, March 5, 2019

Renegotiating NAFTA and U.S. Textile Manufacturing, October 30, 2017

U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, September 1, 2016

U.S. Clothing and Textile Trade with China and the World: Trends Since the End of Quotas, July 10, 2007

DR-CAFTA, Textiles, and Apparel, May 20, 2005

Haiti Textile Industry: Impact of Proposed Trade Assistance, February 18, 2005

Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin in International Trade, May 23, 2003

Textile and apparel Trade Issues, February 1, 2002


USMCA: Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), September 19, 2019

USMCA: Labor Provisions, September 12, 2019

President Trump’s Possible Tariffs on Mexican Goods: Potential Economic Effects June 6, 2019

USMCA and Mexico’s New Labor Law, CRS Insight, May 22, 2019

Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, April 8, 2019

Proposed U.S.-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Trade Agreement, February 22, 2019

Agricultural Provisions of the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, October 5, 2018

NAFTA and the Preliminary U.S.-Mexico Agreement, September 19, 2018

NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization, July 26, 2018

State Exports to NAFTA countries in 2016, October 24, 2017

NAFTA and Motor Vehicle Trade, July 28, 2017

North American Free Trade Agreement: Notification for Renegotiation, CRS Insight, May 19, 2017

Renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): What Actions Do Not Require Congressional Approval?, CRS Legal Sidebar, April 27, 2017

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), February 22, 2017

Renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): What Actions Do Not Require Congressional Approval?, CRS Legal Sidebar, January 26, 2017

Presidential Authority over Trade: Imposing Tariffs and Duties, December 9, 2016

U.S. Withdrawal from Free Trade Agreements: Frequently Asked Legal Questions, September 7, 2016

U.S.-Japan Free Trade Agreement

U.S.-Japan Trade Agreement Negotiations, September 12, 2019

The Proposed EU-Japan FTA and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy, July 14, 2017

Section 301 Investigation 

China’s Retaliatory Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture: In Brief, September 24, 2019

Escalating Tariffs: Timeline, September 12, 2019

Escalating U.S. Tariffs: Affected Trade, September 12, 2019

Enforcing U.S. Trade Laws: Section 301 and China, June 26, 2019

Section 232 Investigation 

Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, July 16, 2019

Section 232 Investigation: Uranium Imports, July 16, 2019

Section 232 Investigations: Overview and Issues for Congress, April 2, 2019

Threats to National Security Foiled? A Wrap Up of New Tariffs on Steel and Aluminum, March 12, 2018

Section 201 Investigation

Trade Remedies: Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, August 22, 2018

Trade Promotion and Authority (TPA)

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), September 4, 2018

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, February 13, 2019

Labor Issues in Trade Agreements

Labor Enforcement Issues in U.S. FTAs, September 7, 2018

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements, February 22, 2016

Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) April 21, 2016

Trade Deficit

The U.S. Trade Deficit: An Overview, March 8, 2019

U.S. Trade Debates: Select Disputes and Actions,  August 28, 2018

Trade Deficits and U.S. Trade Policy, June 28, 2018

Should the U.S. Trade Deficit be Redefined?, CRS Insight, March 17, 2017

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit, October 7, 2016

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices, August 16, 2016

What’s the Difference?—Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, March 24, 2016

U.S.-China Trade Relationship

U.S.-China Trade and Economic Relations: Overview, September 12, 2019

Trade Dispute with China and Rare Earth Elements, June 28, 2019

China-U.S. Trade Issues, June 23, 2019

What’s the Difference?—Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, March 20, 2019

The Made in China 2025 Initiative: Economic Implications for the United States, August 29, 2018

China-U.S. Trade Issues, July 30, 2018

China’s Retaliatory Tariffs on Selected U.S. Agricultural Products, April 4, 2018

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization: Overview and Future Direction, updated October 2, 2019

The World Trade Organization, October 1, 2019

The “National Security Exception” and the World Trade Organization, November 28, 2018

Agriculture in the WTO: Rules and Limits on U.S. Domestic Support, September 6, 2018

The World Trade Organization (WTO): U.S. Participation at Risk?, July 31, 2018

The World Trade Organization, September 7, 2017

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview, November 26, 2016

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), IF10149, July 18, 2019

African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization, April 22, 2015

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)

TPP countries sign new CPTPP without the United States, March 9, 2018

Brexit and EU

New UK Leadership: Implications for Brexit, July 31, 2019

U.S.-EU Trade and Investment Ties: Magnitude and Scope, July 9, 2019

Brexit and Outlook for U.S.-UK Trade Agreement, April 11, 2019

Proposed U.S.-EU Trade Negotiations: Hitting Pause on a Trade War?, August 9, 2018

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Issues, August 1, 2018

U.S.-UK Free Trade Agreement: Prospects and Issues for Congress, April 14, 2017

Economic Implications of a United Kingdom Exit from the European Union, July 14, 2016

The European Union: Questions and Answers, February 21, 2017

U.S. Manufacturing and Trade

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective, February 21, 2018

Buying American: Protecting U.S. Manufacturing Through the Berry and Kissell Amendments, May 18, 2017

Trade Implications of the President’s Buy American Executive Order, CRS Insight, May 2, 2017

The Meaning of “Made in USA”, May 5, 2017

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival, May 5, 2017

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), IF11232, July 16, 2019

Trump Administration’s Proposed Removal of Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) Benefits for India and Turkey, March 15, 2019

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Overview, January 8, 2019

Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA)

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers and the TAA Reauthorization Act of 2015, August 14, 2018

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (MTBs)

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (MTBs), September 6, 2019

Miscellaneous Tariff Bills: Overview and Issues for Congress, April 22, 2016

Trade in Services and Digital Trade

Digital Trade and U.S. Trade Policy, May 21, 2019

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations: Overview and Issues for Congress, January 3, 2017

U.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues, December 6, 2016

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

The United States Withdraws from the TPP, CRS Insight, May 4, 2017

Moving On: TPP Signatories Meet in Chile, CRS Insight, March 16, 2017

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Analysis of Economic Studies, June 30, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and Issues for Congress, June 14, 2016

TPP Financial Services Data Flows, CRS Insight, June 3, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief, February 9, 2016

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Strategic Implications, February 3, 2016

Border-Adjusted Taxes

Border-Adjusted Taxes and the Rules of the World Trade Organization: The Distinction Between Direct and Indirect Taxes, CRS Legal Sidebar, March 22, 2017

International Competitiveness: An Economic Analysis of VAT Border Tax Adjustments, July 30, 2009

Other Topics

Blockchain and International Trade, CRS In Focus, updated June 25, 2019

International Trade and E-commerce, May 1, 2019

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law, September 19, 2018