Like many other sectors, the apparel industry is NOT immune to the Russia-Ukraine military conflict. According to data from Euromonitor, as one of the world’s largest apparel consumption markets, apparel retail sales in Russia exceeded USD 28 billion in 2021.
Notably, many well-known global fashion brands, such as H&M, Zara, Uniqlo, Adidas, Hugo Boss, Nike, and the emerging ultra-fast fashion retailer Shein, are top players with the largest market shares in Russia’s apparel retail market.
Russia was a lucrative and growing market for luxury apparel brands. Industry sources indicate that of apparel items launched to the Russian retail market from Jan 2021 to Feb 2022, more than 19% were in the luxury segment, much higher than 10% in the US and 8.7% in Italy, France, German, the UK, and Spain combined.
That being said, store closure, the EU, and US’s export ban of luxury goods to Russia would modestly impact most luxury apparel brands. Notably, Russia remains a relatively small market for luxury apparel brands. For example, less than 2% of LVMH’s annual sales came from Russia and 3% for the Kering Group. In comparison, Western EU and North America combined typically account for half of a luxury apparel band’s annual sales.
Given the fast deterioration of the situation, a growing number of international fashion brands and retailers have decided to suspend their operations in Russia, including Nike, H&M, Puma, Zara, Levi’s, Hermes, Chanel, and Gucci. Japan’s Fast Retailing Group (Uniqlo) initially chose to stay, but later reversed its decision. According to Yale University, as of March 18, 2022, over 400 global companies have withdrawn from Russia, but some remain.
Further, the World Trade Organization data shows that Russia ranked as the world’s No.10 largest apparel importer in 2020 (by value). According to UNComtrade, China served as Russia’s single largest source of apparel in 2020 (40.3%), followed by EU members (12.3%), Bangladesh (10.5%), Turkey (6.2%), and Vietnam (5.1%). However, Russia accounted for a relatively small proportion of these countries’ apparel exports, implying a modest trade impact.
Nevertheless, a few Eastern EU countries rely more heavily on Russia as their top apparel export market, including Uzbekistan (52%), Moldova (40.4%), and Lithuania (18.8%). Apparel producers in these countries could be vulnerable to trade disruption.
On the other hand, the fashion industry faces growing price pressure because of the Russia-Ukraine war. As the immediate result of the escalated tension, the world oil price jumped substantially. This means textile fibers derived from oil, such as polyester, could face tremendous price pressure. As man-made fiber becomes more expensive, the demand for natural fiber could also increase, eventually extending the price inflation to natural fiber.
Further, the vast uncertainty and risk caused by the war for the world economy and geopolitics could be a more significant concern. For example, a fluctuating financial market and a slower world economy would complicate the post-covid recovery. Also, Turkey, one of Ukraine’s close neighbors, serves as a leading apparel supplier for the EU market. Apparel companies that rely on sourcing from Turkey may need to prepare for a contingency plan. Media reports that the Turkish textile and apparel industry suffers as customers in Ukraine and Russia cancel orders.
Summarized by Sheng Lu
- Companies Have Withdrawn from Russia (compiled by Yale University)
- Ukraine Dashboard (American Apparel and Footwear Association)
- CRS report: New Financial and Trade Sanctions Against Russia
- CRS report: Invasion of Ukraine: Russia’s Trade Status, Tariffs, and WTO Issues